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A fast adaptive layout algorithm for undirected graphs
, 1995
"... Abstract. We present a randomized adaptive layout algorithm for nicely drawing undirected graphs that is based on the springembedder paradigm and contains several new heuristics to improve the convergence, including local temperatures, gravitational forces and the detection of rotations and oscilla ..."
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Cited by 122 (1 self)
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Abstract. We present a randomized adaptive layout algorithm for nicely drawing undirected graphs that is based on the springembedder paradigm and contains several new heuristics to improve the convergence, including local temperatures, gravitational forces and the detection of rotations and oscillations. The proposed algorithm achieves drawings of high quality on a wide range of graphs with standard settings. Moreover, the algorithm is fast, being thus applicable on general undirected graphs of substantially larger size and complexity than before [9, 6, 3]. Aesthetically pleasing solutions are found in most cases. We give empirical data for the running time of the algorithm and the quality of the computed layouts. 1
VLSI cell placement techniques
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1991
"... VLSI cell placement problem is known to be NP complete. A wide repertoire of heuristic algorithms exists in the literature for efficiently arranging the logic cells on a VLSI chip. The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive survey of the various cell placement techniques, with emphasi ..."
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Cited by 88 (0 self)
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VLSI cell placement problem is known to be NP complete. A wide repertoire of heuristic algorithms exists in the literature for efficiently arranging the logic cells on a VLSI chip. The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive survey of the various cell placement techniques, with emphasis on standard ce11and macro
Algorithms for Cluster Busting in Anchored Graph Drawing
 Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications
, 1998
"... Given a graph G and a drawing or layout of G, it is sometimes desirable to alter or adjust the layout. The challenging aspect of designing layout adjustment algorithms is to maintain a user's mental picture of the original layout. We present a new approach to layout adjustment called cluster bu ..."
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Cited by 41 (0 self)
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Given a graph G and a drawing or layout of G, it is sometimes desirable to alter or adjust the layout. The challenging aspect of designing layout adjustment algorithms is to maintain a user's mental picture of the original layout. We present a new approach to layout adjustment called cluster busting in anchored graph drawing. We then give two algorithms as examples of this approach. The goals of cluster busting in anchored graph drawing are to more evenly distribute the nodes of the graph in a drawing window while maintaining the user's mental picture of the original drawing. We present simple and eÆcient iterative heuristics to accomplish these goals. We formally de ne some measures of distribution and similarity and give empirical results based on these measures to quantify our methods. The theoretical analysis of our heuristics presents a formidable challenge, thus justifying our empirical analysis. Communicated by G. Di Battista: submitted April 1996; revised March 1998. Research...
A Numerical Optimization Approach to General Graph Drawing
, 1999
"... Graphs are ubiquitous, finding applications in domains ranging from software engineering to computational biology. While graph theory and graph algorithms are some of the oldest, most studied fields in computer science, the problem of visualizing graphs is comparatively young. This problem, known as ..."
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Cited by 23 (0 self)
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Graphs are ubiquitous, finding applications in domains ranging from software engineering to computational biology. While graph theory and graph algorithms are some of the oldest, most studied fields in computer science, the problem of visualizing graphs is comparatively young. This problem, known as graph drawing, is that of transforming combinatorial graphs into geometric drawings for the purpose of visualization. Most published algorithms for drawing general graphs model the drawing problem with a physical analogy, representing a graph as a system of springs and other physical elements and then simulating the relaxation of this physical system. Solving the graph drawing problem involves both choosing a physical model and then using numerical optimization to simulate the physical system. In this
Integrating edge routing into forcedirected layout
 IN: PROC. 14TH INTL. SYMP. GRAPH DRAWING (GD ’06). VOLUME 4372 OF LECTURE
, 2007
"... Forcedirected layout is typically used to create organiclooking, straightedge drawings of large graphs while combinatorial techniques are generally preferred for highquality layout of small to medium sized graphs. In this paper we integrate edgerouting techniques into a forcedirected layout me ..."
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Cited by 16 (4 self)
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Forcedirected layout is typically used to create organiclooking, straightedge drawings of large graphs while combinatorial techniques are generally preferred for highquality layout of small to medium sized graphs. In this paper we integrate edgerouting techniques into a forcedirected layout method based on constrained stress majorisation. Our basic procedure takes an initial layout for the graph, including polyline paths for the edges, and improves this layout by moving the nodes to reduce stress and moving edge bend points to straighten the edges and reduce their overall length. Separation constraints between nodes and edge bend points are used to ensure that node labels do not overlap edges or other nodes and that no additional edge crossings are introduced.
Constrained stress majorization using diagonally scaled gradient projection
, 2007
"... Constrained stress majorization is a promising new technique for integrating application specific layout constraints into forcedirected graph layout. We significantly improve the speed and convergence properties of the constrained stressmajorization technique for graph layout by employing a diagon ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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Constrained stress majorization is a promising new technique for integrating application specific layout constraints into forcedirected graph layout. We significantly improve the speed and convergence properties of the constrained stressmajorization technique for graph layout by employing a diagonal scaling of the stress function. Diagonal scaling requires the activeset quadratic programming solver used in the projection step to be extended to handle separation constraints with scaled variables, i.e. of the form siyi + gij ≤ sjyj. The changes, although relatively small, are quite subtle and explained in detail.
New theoretical results on quadratic placement
 in Integration – a VLSI Journal Jens Vygen ICCAD 2002 Placement Tutorial 120
"... Current tools for VLSI placement are based either on quadratic placement, or on mincut heuristics, or on simulated annealing. For the most complex chips with millions of movable objects, algorithms based on quadratic placement seem to yield the best results within reasonable time. In this paper we ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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Current tools for VLSI placement are based either on quadratic placement, or on mincut heuristics, or on simulated annealing. For the most complex chips with millions of movable objects, algorithms based on quadratic placement seem to yield the best results within reasonable time. In this paper we prove several new theoretical results on quadratic placement. We point out connections to random walks and electrical networks. Moreover, we argue that quadratic placement has, in contrast to the other approaches, some welldefined stability properties. Finally, we consider the question how to choose the weights of the clique edges representing a multiterminal net optimally.
HOLA: Humanlike Orthogonal Network Layout
"... Fig. 1: Human, yFiles, and HOLA layouts of SBGN GlycolysisGlygoneogensis pathway. It is clear that the human and the stateoftheart layout algorithm from yFiles produce structurally quite different layouts. In this paper we explore the reasons why humans arrange such orthogonal network diagrams d ..."
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Cited by 1 (1 self)
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Fig. 1: Human, yFiles, and HOLA layouts of SBGN GlycolysisGlygoneogensis pathway. It is clear that the human and the stateoftheart layout algorithm from yFiles produce structurally quite different layouts. In this paper we explore the reasons why humans arrange such orthogonal network diagrams differently to standard algorithms and use this to inform the design of a new algorithm, HOLA (output shown rightmost), that aims to produce more “humanlike ” layout. Abstract — Over the last 50 years a wide variety of automatic network layout algorithms have been developed. Some are fast heuristic techniques suitable for networks with hundreds of thousands of nodes while others are multistage frameworks for higherquality layout of smaller networks. However, despite decades of research currently no algorithm produces layout of comparable quality to that of a human. We give a new “humancentred ” methodology for automatic network layout algorithm design that is intended to overcome this deficiency. User studies are first used to identify the aesthetic criteria algorithms should encode, then an algorithm is developed that is informed by these criteria and finally, a followup study evaluates the algorithm output. We have used this new methodology to develop an automatic orthogonal network layout method, HOLA, that achieves measurably better (by user study) layout than the best available orthogonal layout algorithm and which produces layouts of comparable quality to those produced by hand. Index Terms—Graph layout, orthogonal layout, automatic layout algorithms, usergenerated layout, graphdrawing aesthetics 1