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54
A logicbased framework for attribute based access control
 In Workshop on Formal Methods in Security Engineering
, 2004
"... Attribute based access control (ABAC) grants accesses to services based on the attributes possessed by the requester. Thus, ABAC differs from the traditional discretionary access control model by replacing the subject by a set of attributes and the object by a set of services in the access control ..."
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Cited by 70 (3 self)
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Attribute based access control (ABAC) grants accesses to services based on the attributes possessed by the requester. Thus, ABAC differs from the traditional discretionary access control model by replacing the subject by a set of attributes and the object by a set of services in the access control matrix. The former is appropriate in an identityless system like the Internet where subjects are identified by their characteristics, such as those substantiated by certificates. These can be modeled as attribute sets. The latter is appropriate because most Internet users are not privy to method names residing on remote servers. These can be modeled as sets of service options. We present a framework that models this aspect of access control using logic programming with set constraints of a computable set theory [DPPR00]. Our framework specifies policies as stratified constraint flounderfree logic programs that admit primitive recursion. The design of the policy specification framework ensures that they are consistent and complete. Our ABAC policies can be transformed to ensure faster runtimes.
Verifying CTL Properties of Infinite State Systems by Specializing Constraint Logic Programs
, 2001
"... this paper we assume that a system makes transitions from states to states and its evolution can be formalized using a computation tree which is dened as follows. Given a system S and its initial state s 0 , the root of the computation tree for S is s 0 , and every node s i of the computation tree f ..."
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Cited by 31 (22 self)
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this paper we assume that a system makes transitions from states to states and its evolution can be formalized using a computation tree which is dened as follows. Given a system S and its initial state s 0 , the root of the computation tree for S is s 0 , and every node s i of the computation tree for S has a child node s j i there exists in S a transition from state s i to state s j , called a successor state of s i . The set of all states of a system may be nite or innite. We assume that in every system for every state s i there exists at least one successor state
Some (in)translatability results for normal logic programs and propositional theories
 Journal of Applied NonClassical Logics
, 2006
"... ABSTRACT. In this article, we compare the expressive powers of classes of normal logic programs that are obtained by constraining the number of positive subgoals (n) in the bodies of rules. The comparison is based on the existence/nonexistence of polynomial, faithful, and modular (PFM) translation f ..."
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Cited by 25 (8 self)
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ABSTRACT. In this article, we compare the expressive powers of classes of normal logic programs that are obtained by constraining the number of positive subgoals (n) in the bodies of rules. The comparison is based on the existence/nonexistence of polynomial, faithful, and modular (PFM) translation functions between the classes. As a result, we obtain a strict ordering among the classes under consideration. Binary programs (n ≤ 2) are shown to be as expressive as unconstrained programs but strictly more expressive than unary programs (n ≤ 1) which, in turn, are strictly more expressive than atomic programs (n = 0). We also take propositional theories into consideration and prove them to be strictly less expressive than atomic programs. In spite of the gap in expressiveness, we develop a faithful but nonmodular translation function from normal programs to propositional theories. We consider this as a breakthrough due to subquadratic time complexity (of the order of P   × log 2 Hb(P)). Furthermore, we present a prototype implementation of the translation function and demonstrate its promising performance with SAT solvers using three benchmark problems.
Transformation Rules for Locally Stratified Constraint Logic Programs
, 2004
"... We propose a set of transformation rules for constraint logic programs with negation. We assume that every program is locally strati ed and, thus, it has a unique perfect model. We give sucient conditions which ensure that the proposed set of transformation rules preserves the perfect model of ..."
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Cited by 25 (22 self)
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We propose a set of transformation rules for constraint logic programs with negation. We assume that every program is locally strati ed and, thus, it has a unique perfect model. We give sucient conditions which ensure that the proposed set of transformation rules preserves the perfect model of the programs. Our rules extend in some respects the rules for logic programs and constraint logic programs already considered in the literature and, in particular, they include a rule for unfolding a clause with respect to a negative literal.
Unfold/fold transformations of CCP programs
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS
, 1998
"... We introduce a transformation system for concurrent constraint programming (CCP). We define suitable applicability conditions for the transformations which guarantee that the input/output CCP semantics is preserved also when distinguishing deadlocked computations from successful ones and when consid ..."
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Cited by 22 (6 self)
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We introduce a transformation system for concurrent constraint programming (CCP). We define suitable applicability conditions for the transformations which guarantee that the input/output CCP semantics is preserved also when distinguishing deadlocked computations from successful ones and when considering intermediate results of (possibly) nonterminating computations. The system allows us to optimize CCP programs while preserving their intended meaning: In addition to the usual benefits that one has for sequential declarative languages, the transformation of concurrent programs can also lead to the elimination of communication channels and of synchronization points, to the transformation of nondeterministic computations into deterministic ones, and to the crucial saving of computational space. Furthermore, since the transformation system preserves the deadlock behavior of programs, it can be used for proving deadlock freeness of a given program with respect to a class of queries. To this aim it is sometimes sufficient to apply our transformations and to specialize the resulting program with respect to the given queries in such a way that the obtained program is trivially deadlock free.
Generalization Strategies for the Verification of Infinite State Systems
"... Abstract. We present a comparative evaluation of some generalization strategies which are applied by a method for the automated verification of infinite state reactive systems. The verification method is based on (1) the specialization of the constraint logic program which encodes the system with re ..."
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Cited by 20 (17 self)
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Abstract. We present a comparative evaluation of some generalization strategies which are applied by a method for the automated verification of infinite state reactive systems. The verification method is based on (1) the specialization of the constraint logic program which encodes the system with respect to the initial state and the property to be verified, and (2) a bottomup evaluation of the specialized program. The generalization strategies are used during the program specialization phase for controlling when and how to perform generalization. Selecting a good generalization strategy is not a trivial task because it must guarantee the termination of the specialization phase itself, and it should be a good balance between precision and performance. Indeed, a coarse generalization strategy may prevent one to prove the properties of interest, while an unnecessarily precise strategy may lead to high verification times. We perform an experimental evaluation of various generalization strategies on several infinite state systems and properties to be verified. 1
Transformation of Left Terminating Programs: The Reordering Problem
 PROCEEDINGS LOPSTR'95, VOLUME 1048 OF LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1995
"... An Unfold/Fold transformation system is a sourcetosource rewriting methodology devised to improve the efficiency of a program. Any such transformation should preserve the main properties of the initial program: among them, termination. When dealing with logic programs such as PROLOG programs, on ..."
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Cited by 16 (4 self)
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An Unfold/Fold transformation system is a sourcetosource rewriting methodology devised to improve the efficiency of a program. Any such transformation should preserve the main properties of the initial program: among them, termination. When dealing with logic programs such as PROLOG programs, one is particularly interested in preserving left termination i.e. termination wrt the leftmost selection rule, which is by far the most widely employed of the search rules. Unfortunately, the most popular Unfold/Fold transformation systems ([TS84, Sek91]) do not preserve the above termination property. In this paper we study the reasons why left termination may be spoiled by the application of a transformation operation and we present a transformation system based on the operations of Unfold, Fold and Switch which if applied to a left terminating programs yields a program which is left terminating as well.
Automated Strategies for Specializing Constraint Logic Programs
 LOPSTR 2000, LNCS 2042
"... We consider the problem of specializing constraint logic programs w.r.t. constrained queries. We follow a transformational approach based on rules and strategies. The use of the rules ensures that the specialized program is equivalent to the initial program w.r.t. a given constrained query. The stra ..."
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Cited by 14 (12 self)
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We consider the problem of specializing constraint logic programs w.r.t. constrained queries. We follow a transformational approach based on rules and strategies. The use of the rules ensures that the specialized program is equivalent to the initial program w.r.t. a given constrained query. The strategies guide the application of the rules so to derive an efficient specialized program. In this paper we address various issues concerning the development of an automated transformation strategy. In particular, we consider the problems of when and how we should unfold, replace constraints, introduce generalized clauses, and apply the contextual constraint replacement rule. We propose a solution to these problems by adapting to our framework various techniques developed in the field of constraint programming, partial evaluation, and abstract interpretation. In particular, we use: (i) suitable solvers for simplifying constraints, (ii) wellquasiorders for ensuring the termination...
Verifying programs via iterated specialization
 Proc. PEPM ’13
, 2013
"... We present a method for verifying properties of imperative programs by using techniques based on the specialization of constraint logic programs (CLP). We consider a class of C programs with integer variables and we focus our attention on safety properties, stating that no error configuration can be ..."
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Cited by 12 (10 self)
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We present a method for verifying properties of imperative programs by using techniques based on the specialization of constraint logic programs (CLP). We consider a class of C programs with integer variables and we focus our attention on safety properties, stating that no error configuration can be reached from the initial configurations. We encode the interpreter of the language as a CLP program I, and we also encode the safety property to be verified as the negation of a predicate unsafe defined in I. Then, we specialize the CLP program I with respect to the given C program and the given initial and error configurations, with the objective of deriving a new CLP program Isp which either contains the fact unsafe (and in this case the C program is proved unsafe) or contains no clauses with head unsafe (and in this case the C program is proved safe). If Isp does not enjoy this property we iterate the specialization process with the objective of deriving a CLP program where we can prove unsafety or safety. During the various specializations we may apply different strategies for propagating information
A Transformation System for CLP with Dynamic Scheduling and CCP
 ACM{SIGPLAN Symposium on Partial Evaluation and Semantic Based Program Manipulation
, 1997
"... In this paper we study unfold/fold transformations for constraint logic programs (CLP) with dynamic scheduling and for concurrent constraint programming (CCP). We define suitable applicability conditions for these transformations which guarantee that the original and the transformed program have the ..."
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Cited by 11 (2 self)
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In this paper we study unfold/fold transformations for constraint logic programs (CLP) with dynamic scheduling and for concurrent constraint programming (CCP). We define suitable applicability conditions for these transformations which guarantee that the original and the transformed program have the same results of successful derivations and the same deadlock free queries. The possible applications of these results are twofold. On one hand we can use the unfold/fold system to optimize CLP and CCP programs while preserving their intended meaning and in particular without the risk of introducing deadlocks. On the other hand, unfold/fold transformations can be used for proving deadlock freeness of a class of queries in a given program: to this aim it is sufficient to apply our transformations and to specialize the resulting program with respect to the given queries in such a way that the obtained program is trivially deadlock free. As shown by several interesting examples, this yields a methodology for proving deadlock freeness which is simple and powerful at the same time.