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Logic program specialisation through partial deduction: Control issues
 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF LOGIC PROGRAMMING
, 2002
"... Program specialisation aims at improving the overall performance of programs by performing source to source transformations. A common approach within functional and logic programming, known respectively as partial evaluation and partial deduction, is to exploit partial knowledge about the input. It ..."
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Cited by 54 (12 self)
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Program specialisation aims at improving the overall performance of programs by performing source to source transformations. A common approach within functional and logic programming, known respectively as partial evaluation and partial deduction, is to exploit partial knowledge about the input. It is achieved through a wellautomated application of parts of the BurstallDarlington unfold/fold transformation framework. The main challenge in developing systems is to design automatic control that ensures correctness, efficiency, and termination. This survey and tutorial presents the main developments in controlling partial deduction over the past 10 years and analyses their respective merits and shortcomings. It ends with an assessment of current achievements and sketches some remaining research challenges.
Conjunctive Partial Deduction: Foundations, Control, Algorithms, and Experiments
 J. LOGIC PROGRAMMING
, 1999
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Transformation of Logic Programs
 Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming
, 1998
"... Program transformation is a methodology for deriving correct and efficient programs from specifications. In this chapter, we will look at the so called 'rules + strategies' approach, and we will report on the main techniques which have been introduced in the literature for that approach, in the case ..."
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Cited by 34 (3 self)
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Program transformation is a methodology for deriving correct and efficient programs from specifications. In this chapter, we will look at the so called 'rules + strategies' approach, and we will report on the main techniques which have been introduced in the literature for that approach, in the case of logic programs. We will also present some examples of program transformation, and we hope that through those examples the reader may acquire some familiarity with the techniques we will describe.
Synthesis And Transformation Of Logic Programs Using Unfold/Fold Proofs
 Journal of Logic Programming
, 1999
"... We present a method for proving properties of definite logic programs. This method is called unfold/fold proof method because it is based on the unfold/fold transformation rules... ..."
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Cited by 29 (11 self)
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We present a method for proving properties of definite logic programs. This method is called unfold/fold proof method because it is based on the unfold/fold transformation rules...
Conjunctive Partial Deduction in Practice
 Proceedings of the International Workshop on Logic Program Synthesis and Transformation (LOPSTR'96), LNCS 1207
, 1996
"... . Recently, partial deduction of logic programs has been extended to conceptually embed folding. To this end, partial deductions are no longer computed of single atoms, but rather of entire conjunctions; Hence the term "conjunctive partial deduction". Conjunctive partial deduction aims at achieving ..."
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Cited by 27 (19 self)
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. Recently, partial deduction of logic programs has been extended to conceptually embed folding. To this end, partial deductions are no longer computed of single atoms, but rather of entire conjunctions; Hence the term "conjunctive partial deduction". Conjunctive partial deduction aims at achieving unfold/foldlike program transformations such as tupling and deforestation within fully automated partial deduction. However, its merits greatly surpass that limited context: Also other major efficiency improvements are obtained through considerably improved sideways information propagation. In this extended abstract, we investigate conjunctive partial deduction in practice. We describe the concrete options used in the implementation(s), look at abstraction in a practical Prolog context, include and discuss an extensive set of benchmark results. From these, we can conclude that conjunctive partial deduction indeed pays off in practice, thoroughly beating its conventional precursor on a wide...
Reducing Nondeterminism while Specializing Logic Programs
, 1997
"... Program specialization is a collection of program transformation techniques for improving program efficiency by exploiting some information available at compiletime about the input data. We show that current techniques for program specialization based on partial evaluation do not perform well on non ..."
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Cited by 25 (14 self)
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Program specialization is a collection of program transformation techniques for improving program efficiency by exploiting some information available at compiletime about the input data. We show that current techniques for program specialization based on partial evaluation do not perform well on nondeterministic logic programs. We then consider a set of transformation rules which extend the ones used for partial evaluation, and we propose a strategy to direct the application of these extended rules so to derive very efficient specialized programs. The efficiency improvements which may even be exponential, are achieved because the derived programs are semideterministic and the operations which are performed by the initial programs in different branches of the computation trees, are performed in the specialized programs within single branches. We also make use of mode information to guide the unfolding process and to reduce nondeterminism. To exemplify our technique, we show that we can...
On The Correctness Of Unfold/fold Transformation Of Normal And Extended Logic Programs
 JOURNAL OF LOGIC PROGRAMMING
, 1995
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Algebra of logic programming
 International Conference on Logic Programming
, 1999
"... At present, the field of declarative programming is split into two main areas based on different formalisms; namely, functional programming, which is based on lambda calculus, and logic programming, which is based on firstorder logic. There are currently several language proposals for integrating th ..."
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Cited by 20 (3 self)
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At present, the field of declarative programming is split into two main areas based on different formalisms; namely, functional programming, which is based on lambda calculus, and logic programming, which is based on firstorder logic. There are currently several language proposals for integrating the expressiveness of these two models of computation. In this thesis we work towards an integration of the methodology from the two research areas. To this end, we propose an algebraic approach to reasoning about logic programs, corresponding to the approach taken in functional programming. In the first half of the thesis we develop and discuss a framework which forms the basis for our algebraic analysis and transformation methods. The framework is based on an embedding of definite logic programs into lazy functional programs in Haskell, such that both the declarative and the operational semantics of the logic programs are preserved. In spite of its conciseness and apparent simplicity, the embedding proves to have many interesting properties and it gives rise to an algebraic semantics of logic programming. It also allows us to reason about logic programs in a simple calculational style, using rewriting and the algebraic laws of combinators. In the embedding, the meaning of a logic program arises compositionally from the meaning of its constituent subprograms and the combinators that connect them. In the second half of the thesis we explore applications of the embedding to the algebraic transformation of logic programs. A series of examples covers simple program derivations, where our techniques simplify some of the current techniques. Another set of examples explores applications of the more advanced program development techniques from the Algebra of Programming by Bird and de Moor [18], where we expand the techniques currently available for logic program derivation and optimisation. To my parents, Sandor and Erzsebet. And the end of all our exploring Will be to arrive where we started And know the place for the first time.
Transformation of Left Terminating Programs: The Reordering Problem
 PROCEEDINGS LOPSTR'95, VOLUME 1048 OF LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1995
"... An Unfold/Fold transformation system is a sourcetosource rewriting methodology devised to improve the efficiency of a program. Any such transformation should preserve the main properties of the initial program: among them, termination. When dealing with logic programs such as PROLOG programs, on ..."
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Cited by 15 (3 self)
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An Unfold/Fold transformation system is a sourcetosource rewriting methodology devised to improve the efficiency of a program. Any such transformation should preserve the main properties of the initial program: among them, termination. When dealing with logic programs such as PROLOG programs, one is particularly interested in preserving left termination i.e. termination wrt the leftmost selection rule, which is by far the most widely employed of the search rules. Unfortunately, the most popular Unfold/Fold transformation systems ([TS84, Sek91]) do not preserve the above termination property. In this paper we study the reasons why left termination may be spoiled by the application of a transformation operation and we present a transformation system based on the operations of Unfold, Fold and Switch which if applied to a left terminating programs yields a program which is left terminating as well.
Controlling generalization and polyvariance in partial deduction of normal logic programs
 ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
, 1998
"... Given a program and some input data, partial deduction computes a specialized program handling any remaining input more efficiently. However, controlling the process well is a rather difficult problem. In this article, we elaborate global control for partial deduction: for which atoms, among possibl ..."
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Cited by 12 (0 self)
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Given a program and some input data, partial deduction computes a specialized program handling any remaining input more efficiently. However, controlling the process well is a rather difficult problem. In this article, we elaborate global control for partial deduction: for which atoms, among possibly infinitely many, should specialized relations be produced, meanwhile guaranteeing correctness as well as termination? Our work is based on two ingredients. First, we use the concept of a characteristic tree, encapsulating specialization behavior rather than syntactic structure, to guide generalization and polyvariance, and we show how this can be done in a correct and elegant way. Second, we structure combinations of atoms and associated characteristic trees in global trees registering “causal ” relationships among such pairs. This allows us to spot looming nontermination and perform proper generalization in order to avert the danger, without having to impose a depth bound on characteristic trees. The practical relevance and benefits of the work are illustrated through extensive experiments. Finally, a similar approach may improve upon current (online) control strategies for program transformation in general such as (positive) supercompilation of functional programs. It also seems valuable in the context of abstract interpretation to handle infinite domains of infinite height with more precision.