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Explicit Provability And Constructive Semantics
 Bulletin of Symbolic Logic
, 2001
"... In 1933 G odel introduced a calculus of provability (also known as modal logic S4) and left open the question of its exact intended semantics. In this paper we give a solution to this problem. We find the logic LP of propositions and proofs and show that G odel's provability calculus is noth ..."
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Cited by 129 (24 self)
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In 1933 G odel introduced a calculus of provability (also known as modal logic S4) and left open the question of its exact intended semantics. In this paper we give a solution to this problem. We find the logic LP of propositions and proofs and show that G odel's provability calculus is nothing but the forgetful projection of LP. This also achieves G odel's objective of defining intuitionistic propositional logic Int via classical proofs and provides a BrouwerHeytingKolmogorov style provability semantics for Int which resisted formalization since the early 1930s. LP may be regarded as a unified underlying structure for intuitionistic, modal logics, typed combinatory logic and #calculus.
The Logic of Justification
 Cornell University
, 2008
"... We describe a general logical framework, Justification Logic, for reasoning about epistemic justification. Justification Logic is based on classical propositional logic augmented by justification assertions t:F that read t is a justification for F. Justification Logic absorbs basic principles origin ..."
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Cited by 40 (5 self)
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We describe a general logical framework, Justification Logic, for reasoning about epistemic justification. Justification Logic is based on classical propositional logic augmented by justification assertions t:F that read t is a justification for F. Justification Logic absorbs basic principles originating from both mainstream epistemology and the mathematical theory of proofs. It contributes to the studies of the wellknown Justified True Belief vs. Knowledge problem. We state a general Correspondence Theorem showing that behind each epistemic modal logic, there is a robust system of justifications. This renders a new, evidencebased foundation for epistemic logic. As a case study, we offer a resolution of the GoldmanKripke ‘Red Barn ’ paradox and analyze Russell’s ‘prime minister example ’ in Justification Logic. Furthermore, we formalize the wellknown Gettier example and reveal hidden assumptions and redundancies in Gettier’s reasoning. 1
On the computational content of the axiom of choice
 The Journal of Symbolic Logic
, 1998
"... We present a possible computational content of the negative translation of classical analysis with the Axiom of Choice. Our interpretation seems computationally more direct than the one based on Godel's Dialectica interpretation [10, 18]. Interestingly, thisinterpretation uses a re nement of th ..."
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Cited by 35 (1 self)
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We present a possible computational content of the negative translation of classical analysis with the Axiom of Choice. Our interpretation seems computationally more direct than the one based on Godel's Dialectica interpretation [10, 18]. Interestingly, thisinterpretation uses a re nement of the realizibility semantics of the absurdity proposition, which is not interpreted as the empty type here. We alsoshowhow to compute witnesses from proofs in classical analysis, and how to interpret the axiom of Dependent Choice and Spector's Double Negation Shift.
Provability logic
 Handbook of Philosophical Logic, 2nd ed
, 2004
"... We describe a general logical framework, Justification Logic, for reasoning about epistemic justification. Justification Logic is based on classical propositional logic augmented by justification assertions t:F that read t is a justification for F. Justification Logic absorbs basic principles origin ..."
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Cited by 33 (11 self)
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We describe a general logical framework, Justification Logic, for reasoning about epistemic justification. Justification Logic is based on classical propositional logic augmented by justification assertions t:F that read t is a justification for F. Justification Logic absorbs basic principles originating from both mainstream epistemology and the mathematical theory of proofs. It contributes to the studies of the wellknown Justified True Belief vs. Knowledge problem. As a case study, we formalize Gettier examples in Justification Logic and reveal hidden assumptions and redundancies in Gettier reasoning. We state a general Correspondence Theorem showing that behind each epistemic modal logic, there is a robust system of justifications. This renders a new, evidencebased foundation for epistemic logic. 1
Notions of computability at higher types I
 In Logic Colloquium 2000
, 2005
"... We discuss the conceptual problem of identifying the natural notions of computability at higher types (over the natural numbers). We argue for an eclectic approach, in which one considers a wide range of possible approaches to defining higher type computability and then looks for regularities. As a ..."
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Cited by 18 (5 self)
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We discuss the conceptual problem of identifying the natural notions of computability at higher types (over the natural numbers). We argue for an eclectic approach, in which one considers a wide range of possible approaches to defining higher type computability and then looks for regularities. As a first step in this programme, we give an extended survey of the di#erent strands of research on higher type computability to date, bringing together material from recursion theory, constructive logic and computer science. The paper thus serves as a reasonably complete overview of the literature on higher type computability. Two sequel papers will be devoted to developing a more systematic account of the material reviewed here.
On Strong Normalization in the Intersection Type Discipline (Extended Abstract)
"... We give a proof for the strong normalization result in the intersection type discipline, which we obtain by putting together some wellknown results and proof techniques. Our proof uses a variant of Klop's extended calculus, for which it is shown that strong normalization is equivalent to ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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We give a proof for the strong normalization result in the intersection type discipline, which we obtain by putting together some wellknown results and proof techniques. Our proof uses a variant of Klop's extended calculus, for which it is shown that strong normalization is equivalent to weak normalization. This is
Process Realizability
 In Foundations of Secure Computation
, 2000
"... This paper aims to give a readable and reasonably accessible account of some ideas linking the currently still largely separate worlds of concurrency theory and process algebra, on the one hand, and type theory, categorical models and realizability on the other. Background in process algebra may be ..."
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This paper aims to give a readable and reasonably accessible account of some ideas linking the currently still largely separate worlds of concurrency theory and process algebra, on the one hand, and type theory, categorical models and realizability on the other. Background in process algebra may be found in standard texts such as [Hoa85, Hen88, Mil89, Ros97]; while background in realizability, categorical models etc. is provided by texts such as [GLT89, AL91, Cro93, AC98, BW99]. A modest background in either or both of these fields should suffice to understand the main ideas. Most of the detailed verification of properties of the formal definitions we will present is left as a series of exercises. The diligent reader who attempts a number of these should get some feeling for the interplay between concrete processtheoretic notions, and more abstract logical and categorical ideas, which is characteristic of this topic. It is this interplay which makes the topic a fascinating one for the author; I hope this brief introduction, to a field which is still wide open for further development, succeeds in conveying something of this fascination to the reader.
The Dedekind reals in abstract Stone duality
 Mathematical Structures in Computer Science
, 2008
"... Abstract Stone Duality (ASD) is a direct axiomatisation of general topology, in contrast to the traditional and all other contemporary approaches, which rely on a prior notion of discrete set, type or object of a topos. ASD reconciles mathematical and computational viewpoints, providing an inherentl ..."
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Cited by 9 (5 self)
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Abstract Stone Duality (ASD) is a direct axiomatisation of general topology, in contrast to the traditional and all other contemporary approaches, which rely on a prior notion of discrete set, type or object of a topos. ASD reconciles mathematical and computational viewpoints, providing an inherently computable calculus that does not sacrifice key properties of real analysis such as compactness of the closed interval. Previous theories of recursive analysis failed to do this because they were based on points; ASD succeeds because, like locale theory and formal topology, it is founded on the algebra of open subspaces. ASD is presented as a lambdacalculus, of which we provide a selfcontained summary, as the foundational background has been investigated in earlier work. The core of the paper constructs the real line using twosided Dedekind cuts. We show that the closed interval is compact and overt, where these concepts are defined using quantifiers. Further topics, such as the Intermediate Value Theorem, are presented in a separate paper that builds on this one. The interval domain plays an important foundational role. However, we see intervals as generalised Dedekind cuts, which underly the construction of the real line, not as sets or pairs of real numbers. We make a thorough study of arithmetic, in which our operations are more complicated than Moore’s, because we work constructively, and we also consider backtofront (Kaucher) intervals. Finally, we compare ASD with other systems of constructive and computable topology and analysis.