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65
Explicit Provability And Constructive Semantics
 Bulletin of Symbolic Logic
, 2001
"... In 1933 G odel introduced a calculus of provability (also known as modal logic S4) and left open the question of its exact intended semantics. In this paper we give a solution to this problem. We find the logic LP of propositions and proofs and show that G odel's provability calculus is nothing b ..."
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Cited by 114 (22 self)
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In 1933 G odel introduced a calculus of provability (also known as modal logic S4) and left open the question of its exact intended semantics. In this paper we give a solution to this problem. We find the logic LP of propositions and proofs and show that G odel's provability calculus is nothing but the forgetful projection of LP. This also achieves G odel's objective of defining intuitionistic propositional logic Int via classical proofs and provides a BrouwerHeytingKolmogorov style provability semantics for Int which resisted formalization since the early 1930s. LP may be regarded as a unified underlying structure for intuitionistic, modal logics, typed combinatory logic and #calculus.
On the computational content of the axiom of choice
 The Journal of Symbolic Logic
, 1998
"... We present a possible computational content of the negative translation of classical analysis with the Axiom of Choice. Our interpretation seems computationally more direct than the one based on Godel's Dialectica interpretation [10, 18]. Interestingly, thisinterpretation uses a re nement of the rea ..."
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Cited by 34 (1 self)
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We present a possible computational content of the negative translation of classical analysis with the Axiom of Choice. Our interpretation seems computationally more direct than the one based on Godel's Dialectica interpretation [10, 18]. Interestingly, thisinterpretation uses a re nement of the realizibility semantics of the absurdity proposition, which is not interpreted as the empty type here. We alsoshowhow to compute witnesses from proofs in classical analysis, and how to interpret the axiom of Dependent Choice and Spector's Double Negation Shift.
The Logic of Justification
 Cornell University
, 2008
"... We describe a general logical framework, Justification Logic, for reasoning about epistemic justification. Justification Logic is based on classical propositional logic augmented by justification assertions t:F that read t is a justification for F. Justification Logic absorbs basic principles origin ..."
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Cited by 30 (4 self)
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We describe a general logical framework, Justification Logic, for reasoning about epistemic justification. Justification Logic is based on classical propositional logic augmented by justification assertions t:F that read t is a justification for F. Justification Logic absorbs basic principles originating from both mainstream epistemology and the mathematical theory of proofs. It contributes to the studies of the wellknown Justified True Belief vs. Knowledge problem. We state a general Correspondence Theorem showing that behind each epistemic modal logic, there is a robust system of justifications. This renders a new, evidencebased foundation for epistemic logic. As a case study, we offer a resolution of the GoldmanKripke ‘Red Barn ’ paradox and analyze Russell’s ‘prime minister example ’ in Justification Logic. Furthermore, we formalize the wellknown Gettier example and reveal hidden assumptions and redundancies in Gettier’s reasoning. 1
Provability logic
 Handbook of Philosophical Logic, 2nd ed
, 2004
"... We describe a general logical framework, Justification Logic, for reasoning about epistemic justification. Justification Logic is based on classical propositional logic augmented by justification assertions t:F that read t is a justification for F. Justification Logic absorbs basic principles origin ..."
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Cited by 25 (9 self)
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We describe a general logical framework, Justification Logic, for reasoning about epistemic justification. Justification Logic is based on classical propositional logic augmented by justification assertions t:F that read t is a justification for F. Justification Logic absorbs basic principles originating from both mainstream epistemology and the mathematical theory of proofs. It contributes to the studies of the wellknown Justified True Belief vs. Knowledge problem. As a case study, we formalize Gettier examples in Justification Logic and reveal hidden assumptions and redundancies in Gettier reasoning. We state a general Correspondence Theorem showing that behind each epistemic modal logic, there is a robust system of justifications. This renders a new, evidencebased foundation for epistemic logic. 1
Type Theory and Programming
, 1994
"... This paper gives an introduction to type theory, focusing on its recent use as a logical framework for proofs and programs. The first two sections give a background to type theory intended for the reader who is new to the subject. The following presents MartinLof's monomorphic type theory and an im ..."
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Cited by 21 (2 self)
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This paper gives an introduction to type theory, focusing on its recent use as a logical framework for proofs and programs. The first two sections give a background to type theory intended for the reader who is new to the subject. The following presents MartinLof's monomorphic type theory and an implementation, ALF, of this theory. Finally, a few small tutorial examples in ALF are given.
Notions of computability at higher types I
 In Logic Colloquium 2000
, 2005
"... We discuss the conceptual problem of identifying the natural notions of computability at higher types (over the natural numbers). We argue for an eclectic approach, in which one considers a wide range of possible approaches to defining higher type computability and then looks for regularities. As a ..."
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Cited by 12 (5 self)
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We discuss the conceptual problem of identifying the natural notions of computability at higher types (over the natural numbers). We argue for an eclectic approach, in which one considers a wide range of possible approaches to defining higher type computability and then looks for regularities. As a first step in this programme, we give an extended survey of the di#erent strands of research on higher type computability to date, bringing together material from recursion theory, constructive logic and computer science. The paper thus serves as a reasonably complete overview of the literature on higher type computability. Two sequel papers will be devoted to developing a more systematic account of the material reviewed here.
On Strong Normalization in the Intersection Type Discipline (Extended Abstract)
"... We give a proof for the strong normalization result in the intersection type discipline, which we obtain by putting together some wellknown results and proof techniques. Our proof uses a variant of Klop's extended calculus, for which it is shown that strong normalization is equivalent to weak ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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We give a proof for the strong normalization result in the intersection type discipline, which we obtain by putting together some wellknown results and proof techniques. Our proof uses a variant of Klop's extended calculus, for which it is shown that strong normalization is equivalent to weak normalization. This is
Process Realizability
 In Foundations of Secure Computation
, 2000
"... This paper aims to give a readable and reasonably accessible account of some ideas linking the currently still largely separate worlds of concurrency theory and process algebra, on the one hand, and type theory, categorical models and realizability on the other. Background in process algebra may be ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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This paper aims to give a readable and reasonably accessible account of some ideas linking the currently still largely separate worlds of concurrency theory and process algebra, on the one hand, and type theory, categorical models and realizability on the other. Background in process algebra may be found in standard texts such as [Hoa85, Hen88, Mil89, Ros97]; while background in realizability, categorical models etc. is provided by texts such as [GLT89, AL91, Cro93, AC98, BW99]. A modest background in either or both of these fields should suffice to understand the main ideas. Most of the detailed verification of properties of the formal definitions we will present is left as a series of exercises. The diligent reader who attempts a number of these should get some feeling for the interplay between concrete processtheoretic notions, and more abstract logical and categorical ideas, which is characteristic of this topic. It is this interplay which makes the topic a fascinating one for the author; I hope this brief introduction, to a field which is still wide open for further development, succeeds in conveying something of this fascination to the reader.
A realizability interpretation of MartinLöf's type theory
"... In this paper we present a simple argument for normalization of the fragment of MartinLöf's type theory that contains the natural numbers, dependent function types and the first universe. We do this by building a realizability model of this theory which directly reflects that terms and types are ge ..."
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Cited by 8 (1 self)
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In this paper we present a simple argument for normalization of the fragment of MartinLöf's type theory that contains the natural numbers, dependent function types and the first universe. We do this by building a realizability model of this theory which directly reflects that terms and types are generated simultaneously.