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Symbolic Artificial Intelligence And Numeric Artificial Neural Networks: Towards A Resolution Of The Dichotomy
- In: Computational Architectures Integrating Symbolic and Neural , 1994
"... This memory can take several forms based on the time scales at which such modifications are allowed. Some symbol structures might have the property of determining choice and the order of application of transformations to be applied on other symbol structures. These are essentially the programs. Prog ..."
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This memory can take several forms based on the time scales at which such modifications are allowed. Some symbol structures might have the property of determining choice and the order of application of transformations to be applied on other symbol structures. These are essentially the programs. Programs when executed --- typically through the conventional process of compilation and interpretation and eventually --- when they operate on symbols that are linked through grounding to particular effectors --- produce behavior. Working memory holds symbol structures as they are being processed. Long-term memory, generally speaking, is the repository of programs and can be changed by addition, deletion, or modification of symbol structures that it holds. Such a system can compute any Turing-computable function provided it has sufficiently large memory and its primitive set of transformations are adequate for the composition of arbitrarily symbol structures (programs) and the interpreter is capable of interpreting any possible symbol structure. This also means that any particular set of symbolic processes can be carried out by an NANN --- provided it has potentially infinite memory, or finds a way to use its transducers and effectors to use the external physical environment to serve as its memory). 14 Chapter 12 Knowledge in SAI systems is typically embedded in complex symbol structures such as lists (Norvig, 1992), logical databases (Genesereth and Nilsson, 1987), semantic networks (Quillian, 1968), frames (Minsky, 1975), schemas (Arbib, 1972; 1994), and manipulated by (often serial) procedures or inferences (e.g., list processing, application of production rules (Waterman, 1985), or execution of logic programs (Kowalski, 1977) carried out by a central processor that accesse...