Results 1  10
of
63
A Logic of Argumentation for Reasoning under Uncertainty.
 Computational Intelligence
, 1995
"... We present the syntax and proof theory of a logic of argumentation, LA. We also outline the development of a category theoretic semantics for LA. LA is the core of a proof theoretic model for reasoning under uncertainty. In this logic, propositions are labelled with a representation of the arguments ..."
Abstract

Cited by 107 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We present the syntax and proof theory of a logic of argumentation, LA. We also outline the development of a category theoretic semantics for LA. LA is the core of a proof theoretic model for reasoning under uncertainty. In this logic, propositions are labelled with a representation of the arguments which support their validity. Arguments may then be aggregated to collect more information about the potential validity of the propositions of interest. We make the notion of aggregation primitive to the logic, and then define strength mappings from sets of arguments to one of a number of possible dictionaries. This provides a uniform framework which incorporates a number of numerical and symbolic techniques for assigning subjective confidences to propositions on the basis of their supporting arguments. These aggregation techniques are also described, with examples. Key words: Uncertain reasoning, epistemic probability, argumentation, nonclassical logics, nonmonotonic reasoning 1. Introd...
The Theory of LEGO  A Proof Checker for the Extended Calculus of Constructions
, 1994
"... LEGO is a computer program for interactive typechecking in the Extended Calculus of Constructions and two of its subsystems. LEGO also supports the extension of these three systems with inductive types. These type systems can be viewed as logics, and as meta languages for expressing logics, and LEGO ..."
Abstract

Cited by 68 (10 self)
 Add to MetaCart
LEGO is a computer program for interactive typechecking in the Extended Calculus of Constructions and two of its subsystems. LEGO also supports the extension of these three systems with inductive types. These type systems can be viewed as logics, and as meta languages for expressing logics, and LEGO is intended to be used for interactively constructing proofs in mathematical theories presented in these logics. I have developed LEGO over six years, starting from an implementation of the Calculus of Constructions by G erard Huet. LEGO has been used for problems at the limits of our abilities to do formal mathematics. In this thesis I explain some aspects of the metatheory of LEGO's type systems leading to a machinechecked proof that typechecking is decidable for all three type theories supported by LEGO, and to a verified algorithm for deciding their typing judgements, assuming only that they are normalizing. In order to do this, the theory of Pure Type Systems (PTS) is extended and f...
A Nonstandard Approach to the Logical Omniscience Problem
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1990
"... We introduce a new approach to dealing with the wellknown logical omniscience problem in epistemic logic. Instead of taking possible worlds where each world is a model of classical propositional logic, we take possible worlds which are models of a nonstandard propositional logic we call NPL, which ..."
Abstract

Cited by 50 (4 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We introduce a new approach to dealing with the wellknown logical omniscience problem in epistemic logic. Instead of taking possible worlds where each world is a model of classical propositional logic, we take possible worlds which are models of a nonstandard propositional logic we call NPL, which is somewhat related to relevance logic. This approach gives new insights into the logic of implicit and explicit'belief considered by Levesque and Lakemeyer. In particular, we show that in a precise sense agents in the structures considered by Levesque and Lakemeyer are perfect reasoners in NPL. 1
Predicative Recursion and Computational Complexity
, 1992
"... The purpose of this thesis is to give a "foundational" characterization of some common complexity classes. Such a characterization is distinguished by the fact that no explicit resource bounds are used. For example, we characterize the polynomial time computable functions without making any direct r ..."
Abstract

Cited by 45 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
The purpose of this thesis is to give a "foundational" characterization of some common complexity classes. Such a characterization is distinguished by the fact that no explicit resource bounds are used. For example, we characterize the polynomial time computable functions without making any direct reference to polynomials, time, or even computation. Complexity classes characterized in this way include polynomial time, the functional polytime hierarchy, the logspace decidable problems, and NC. After developing these "resource free" definitions, we apply them to redeveloping the feasible logical system of Cook and Urquhart, and show how this firstorder system relates to the secondorder system of Leivant. The connection is an interesting one since the systems were defined independently and have what appear to be very different rules for the principle of induction. Furthermore it is interesting to see, albeit in a very specific context, how to retract a second order statement, ("inducti...
Type Theory and Programming
, 1994
"... This paper gives an introduction to type theory, focusing on its recent use as a logical framework for proofs and programs. The first two sections give a background to type theory intended for the reader who is new to the subject. The following presents MartinLof's monomorphic type theory and an im ..."
Abstract

Cited by 21 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper gives an introduction to type theory, focusing on its recent use as a logical framework for proofs and programs. The first two sections give a background to type theory intended for the reader who is new to the subject. The following presents MartinLof's monomorphic type theory and an implementation, ALF, of this theory. Finally, a few small tutorial examples in ALF are given.
Reasoning About Knowledge: A Survey
 Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming
, 1995
"... : In this survey, I attempt to identify and describe some of the common threads that tie together work in reasoning about knowledge in such diverse fields as philosophy, economics, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and theoretical computer science, with particular emphasis on work of the past fi ..."
Abstract

Cited by 17 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
: In this survey, I attempt to identify and describe some of the common threads that tie together work in reasoning about knowledge in such diverse fields as philosophy, economics, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and theoretical computer science, with particular emphasis on work of the past five years, particularly in computer science. This articule is essentially the same as one that appears in Handbook of of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Vol. 4, D. Gabbay, C. J. Hogger, and J. A. Robinson, eds., Oxford University Press, 1995, pp. 134. It is a revised and updated version of a paper entitled "Reasoning about knowledge: a survey circa 1991", which appears in the Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology, Vol. 27, Supplement 12 (ed. A. Kent and J. G. Williams), Marcel Dekker, 1993, pp. 275296. That article, in turn is a revision of an article entitled "Reasoning About Knowledge: An Overview" that appears in Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning Abou...
Elimination of Negation in a Logical Framework
, 2000
"... Logical frameworks with a logic programming interpretation such as hereditary Harrop formulae (HHF) [15] cannot express directly negative information, although negation is a useful specification tool. Since negationasfailure does not fit well in a logical framework, especially one endowed with ..."
Abstract

Cited by 10 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Logical frameworks with a logic programming interpretation such as hereditary Harrop formulae (HHF) [15] cannot express directly negative information, although negation is a useful specification tool. Since negationasfailure does not fit well in a logical framework, especially one endowed with hypothetical and parametric judgements, we adapt the idea of elimination of negation introduced in [21] for Horn logic to a fragment of higherorder HHF. This entails finding a middle ground between the Closed World Assumption usually associated with negation and the Open World Assumption typical of logical frameworks; the main technical idea is to isolate a set of programs where static and dynamic clauses do not overlap.
NonClassical Automated Deduction
 In Automated Reasoning: Essays in Honor of Woody Bledsoe
, 1996
"... The observation that humans often appear to use a more sophisticated logic than the classical one has sometimes served as an argument against the fundamental role of Automated Deduction in Intellectics. In response to this challenge, a variety of nonclassical logics have been developed especially o ..."
Abstract

Cited by 9 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
The observation that humans often appear to use a more sophisticated logic than the classical one has sometimes served as an argument against the fundamental role of Automated Deduction in Intellectics. In response to this challenge, a variety of nonclassical logics have been developed especially over the last decade, in order to provide adequate formalisms that cover different aspects of commonsense reasoning. We argue that both classical logic and nonclassical derivatives, though different in the details, are based on common grounds. This insight gives rise to the question whether and how calculi originally designed for classical deduction can be adjusted to the various kinds of nonclassical logic. We illustrate such adjusting modifications in terms of the connection method. We elaborate two fundamental concepts, namely the one of a connection, which represents the application of the modus ponens rule, and the one of a path, which represents the current assumptions made in the co...