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305
Metaheuristics in combinatorial optimization: Overview and conceptual comparison
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2003
"... The field of metaheuristics for the application to combinatorial optimization problems is a rapidly growing field of research. This is due to the importance of combinatorial optimization problems for the scientific as well as the industrial world. We give a survey of the nowadays most important meta ..."
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Cited by 194 (14 self)
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The field of metaheuristics for the application to combinatorial optimization problems is a rapidly growing field of research. This is due to the importance of combinatorial optimization problems for the scientific as well as the industrial world. We give a survey of the nowadays most important metaheuristics from a conceptual point of view. We outline the different components and concepts that are used in the different metaheuristics in order to analyze their similarities and differences. Two very important concepts in metaheuristics are intensification and diversification. These are the two forces that largely determine the behaviour of a metaheuristic. They are in some way contrary but also complementary to each other. We introduce a framework, that we call the I&D frame, in order to put different intensification and diversification components into relation with each other. Outlining the advantages and disadvantages of different metaheuristic approaches we conclude by pointing out the importance of hybridization of metaheuristics as well as the integration of metaheuristics and other methods for optimization.
Modelbased search for combinatorial optimization
, 2001
"... Abstract In this paper we introduce modelbased search as a unifying framework accommodating some recently proposed heuristics for combinatorial optimization such as ant colony optimization, stochastic gradient ascent, crossentropy and estimation of distribution methods. We discuss similarities as ..."
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Cited by 49 (14 self)
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Abstract In this paper we introduce modelbased search as a unifying framework accommodating some recently proposed heuristics for combinatorial optimization such as ant colony optimization, stochastic gradient ascent, crossentropy and estimation of distribution methods. We discuss similarities as well as distinctive features of each method, propose some extensions and present a comparative experimental study of these algorithms. 1
Populationbased incremental learning with memory scheme for changing environments
 in Proc. 2005 Genetic Evol. Comput. Conf., 2005
"... Abstract—In recent years, interest in studying evolutionary algorithms (EAs) for dynamic optimization problems (DOPs) has grown due to its importance in realworld applications. Several approaches, such as the memory and multiple population schemes, have been developed for EAs to address dynamic pro ..."
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Cited by 49 (27 self)
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Abstract—In recent years, interest in studying evolutionary algorithms (EAs) for dynamic optimization problems (DOPs) has grown due to its importance in realworld applications. Several approaches, such as the memory and multiple population schemes, have been developed for EAs to address dynamic problems. This paper investigates the application of the memory scheme for populationbased incremental learning (PBIL) algorithms, a class of EAs, for DOPs. A PBILspecific associative memory scheme, which stores best solutions as well as corresponding environmental information in the memory, is investigated to improve its adaptability in dynamic environments. In this paper, the interactions between the memory scheme and random immigrants, multipopulation, and restart schemes for PBILs in dynamic environments are investigated. In order to better test the performance of memory schemes for PBILs and other EAs in dynamic environments, this paper also proposes a dynamic environment generator that can systematically generate dynamic environments of different difficulty with respect to memory schemes. Using this generator, a series of dynamic environments are generated and experiments are carried out to compare the performance of investigated algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed memory scheme is efficient for PBILs in dynamic environments and also indicate that different interactions exist between the memory scheme and random immigrants, multipopulation schemes for PBILs in different dynamic environments. Index Terms—Associative memory scheme, dynamic optimization problems (DOPs), immune systembased genetic algorithm (ISGA), memoryenhanced genetic algorithm, multipopulation scheme, populationbased incremental learning (PBIL), random immigrants.
Feature Subset Selection by Bayesian networks: a comparison with genetic and sequential algorithms
"... In this paper we perform a comparison among FSSEBNA, a randomized, populationbased and evolutionary algorithm, and two genetic and other two sequential search approaches in the well known Feature Subset Selection (FSS) problem. In FSSEBNA, the FSS problem, stated as a search problem, uses the E ..."
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Cited by 49 (15 self)
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In this paper we perform a comparison among FSSEBNA, a randomized, populationbased and evolutionary algorithm, and two genetic and other two sequential search approaches in the well known Feature Subset Selection (FSS) problem. In FSSEBNA, the FSS problem, stated as a search problem, uses the EBNA (Estimation of Bayesian Network Algorithm) search engine, an algorithm within the EDA (Estimation of Distribution Algorithm) approach. The EDA paradigm is born from the roots of the GA community in order to explicitly discover the relationships among the features of the problem and not disrupt them by genetic recombination operators. The EDA paradigm avoids the use of recombination operators and it guarantees the evolution of the population of solutions and the discovery of these relationships by the factorization of the probability distribution of best individuals in each generation of the search. In EBNA, this factorization is carried out by a Bayesian network induced by a chea...
Evolutionary algorithm with the guided mutation for the maximum clique problem
 IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation
, 2005
"... Abstract—Estimation of distribution algorithms sample new solutions (offspring) from a probability model which characterizes the distribution of promising solutions in the search space at each generation. The location information of solutions found so far (i.e., the actual positions of these solutio ..."
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Cited by 35 (12 self)
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Abstract—Estimation of distribution algorithms sample new solutions (offspring) from a probability model which characterizes the distribution of promising solutions in the search space at each generation. The location information of solutions found so far (i.e., the actual positions of these solutions in the search space) is not directly used for generating offspring in most existing estimation of distribution algorithms. This paper introduces a new operator, called guided mutation. Guided mutation generates offspring through combination of global statistical information and the location information of solutions found so far. An evolutionary algorithm with guided mutation (EA/G) for the maximum clique problem is proposed in this paper. Besides guided mutation, EA/G adopts a strategy for searching different search areas in different search phases. Marchiori’s heuristic is applied to each new solution to produce a maximal clique in EA/G. Experimental results show that EA/G outperforms the heuristic genetic algorithm of Marchiori (the best evolutionary algorithm reported so far) and a MIMIC algorithm on DIMACS benchmark graphs. Index Terms—Estimation of distribution algorithms, evolutionary algorithm, guided mutation, heuristics, hybrid genetic algorithm, maximum clique problem (MCP). I.
MILEPOST GCC: machine learning based research compiler
 In GCC
, 2008
"... Tuning hardwired compiler optimizations for rapidly evolving hardware makes porting an optimizing compiler for each new platform extremely challenging. Our radical approach is to develop a modular, extensible, selfoptimizing compiler that automatically learns the best optimization heuristics based ..."
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Cited by 27 (11 self)
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Tuning hardwired compiler optimizations for rapidly evolving hardware makes porting an optimizing compiler for each new platform extremely challenging. Our radical approach is to develop a modular, extensible, selfoptimizing compiler that automatically learns the best optimization heuristics based on the behavior of the platform. In this paper we describe MILEPOST 1 GCC, a machinelearningbased compiler that automatically adjusts its optimization heuristics to improve the execution time, code size, or compilation time of specific programs on different architectures. Our preliminary experimental results show that it is possible to considerably reduce execution time of the MiBench benchmark suite on a range of platforms entirely automatically. 1
On the convergence of a class of estimation of distribution algorithms, conditionally
 IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput
"... Abstract—We investigate the global convergence of estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs). In EDAs, the distribution is estimated from a set of selected elements, i.e., the parent set, and then the estimated distribution model is used to generate new elements. In this paper, we prove that: 1) i ..."
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Cited by 26 (7 self)
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Abstract—We investigate the global convergence of estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs). In EDAs, the distribution is estimated from a set of selected elements, i.e., the parent set, and then the estimated distribution model is used to generate new elements. In this paper, we prove that: 1) if the distribution of the new elements matches that of the parent set exactly, the algorithms will converge to the global optimum under three widely used selection schemes and 2) a factorized distribution algorithm converges globally under proportional selection. Index Terms—Convergence, estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs), factorized distribution algorithms (FDA). I.
Parallel estimation of distribution algorithms
, 2002
"... The thesis deals with the new evolutionary paradigm based on the concept of Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDAs) that use probabilistic model of promising solutions found so far to obtain new candidate solutions of optimized problem. There are six primary goals of this thesis: 1. Suggestion ..."
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Cited by 25 (4 self)
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The thesis deals with the new evolutionary paradigm based on the concept of Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDAs) that use probabilistic model of promising solutions found so far to obtain new candidate solutions of optimized problem. There are six primary goals of this thesis: 1. Suggestion of a new formal description of EDA algorithm. This high level concept can be used to compare the generality of various probabilistic models by comparing the properties of underlying mappings. Also, some convergence issues are discussed and theoretical ways for further improvements are proposed. 2. Development of new probabilistic model and methods capable of dealing with continuous parameters. The resulting Mixed Bayesian Optimization Algorithm (MBOA) uses a set of decision trees to express the probability model. Its main advantage against the mostly used IDEA and EGNA approach is its backward compatibility with discrete domains, so it is uniquely capable of learning linkage between mixed continuousdiscrete genes. MBOA handles the discretization of continuous parameters as an integral part of the learning process, which outperforms the histogrambased
The estimation of distributions and the minimum relative entropy principle
 Evolutionary Computation
, 2005
"... Estimation of Distribution Algorithms EDA have been proposed as an extension of genetic algorithms. In this paper the relation of EDA to algorithms developed in statistics, artificial intelligence, and statistical physics is explained. The major design issues are discussed within a general interdisc ..."
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Cited by 25 (3 self)
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Estimation of Distribution Algorithms EDA have been proposed as an extension of genetic algorithms. In this paper the relation of EDA to algorithms developed in statistics, artificial intelligence, and statistical physics is explained. The major design issues are discussed within a general interdisciplinary framework. It is shown that maximum entropy approximations play a crucial role. All proposed algorithms try to minimize the KullbackLeibler divergence ÃÄ � between the unknown distribution Ô Ü and a class Õ Ü of approximations. The KullbackLeibler divergence is not symmetric. Approximations which suppose that the function to be optimized is additively decomposed (ADF) minimize ÃÄ � Õ�Ô, the methods which learn the approximate model from data minimize ÃÄ � Ô�Õ. This minimization is identical to maximizing the loglikelihood. In the paper three classes of algorithms are discussed. FDA uses the ADF to compute an approximate factorization of the unknown distribution. The factors are marginal distributions, whose values are computed from samples. The BetheKikuchi approach developed in statistical physics uses bivariate or higher order marginals. The values of the marginals are computed from a difficult minimization problem. The third class learns the factorization from the data. We analyze our learning algorithm LFDA in detail. It is shown that learning is faced with two problems: first, to detect the important dependencies between the variables, and second, to create an acyclic Bayesian network of bounded clique size.
Grammar Modelbased Program Evolution
 In Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation
, 2004
"... In Evolutionary Computation, genetic operators, such as mutation and crossover, are employed to perturb individuals to generate the next population. However these fixed, problem independent genetic operators may destroy the subsolution, usually called building blocks, instead of discovering and pres ..."
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Cited by 24 (1 self)
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In Evolutionary Computation, genetic operators, such as mutation and crossover, are employed to perturb individuals to generate the next population. However these fixed, problem independent genetic operators may destroy the subsolution, usually called building blocks, instead of discovering and preserving them. One way to overcome this problem is to build a model based on the good individuals, and sample this model to obtain the next population. There is a wide range of such work in Genetic Algorithms