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The Weighted Majority Algorithm
, 1994
"... We study the construction of prediction algorithms in a situation in which a learner faces a sequence of trials, with a prediction to be made in each, and the goal of the learner is to make few mistakes. We are interested in the case that the learner has reason to believe that one of some pool of kn ..."
Abstract

Cited by 678 (39 self)
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We study the construction of prediction algorithms in a situation in which a learner faces a sequence of trials, with a prediction to be made in each, and the goal of the learner is to make few mistakes. We are interested in the case that the learner has reason to believe that one of some pool of known algorithms will perform well, but the learner does not know which one. A simple and effective method, based on weighted voting, is introduced for constructing a compound algorithm in such a circumstance. We call this method the Weighted Majority Algorithm. We show that this algorithm is robust in the presence of errors in the data. We discuss various versions of the Weighted Majority Algorithm and prove mistake bounds for them that are closely related to the mistake bounds of the best algorithms of the pool. For example, given a sequence of trials, if there is an algorithm in the pool A that makes at most m mistakes then the Weighted Majority Algorithm will make at most c(log jAj + m) mi...
A Guided Tour Across the Boundaries of Learning Recursive Languages
 Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence
, 1994
"... The present paper deals with the learnability of indexed families of uniformly recursive languages from positive data as well as from both, positive and negative data. We consider the influence of various monotonicity constraints to the learning process, and provide a thorough study concerning the i ..."
Abstract

Cited by 56 (29 self)
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The present paper deals with the learnability of indexed families of uniformly recursive languages from positive data as well as from both, positive and negative data. We consider the influence of various monotonicity constraints to the learning process, and provide a thorough study concerning the influence of several parameters. In particular, we present examples pointing to typical problems and solutions in the field. Then we provide a unifying framework for learning. Furthermore, we survey results concerning learnability in dependence on the hypothesis space, and concerning order independence. Moreover, new results dealing with the efficiency of learning are provided. First, we investigate the power of iterative learning algorithms. The second measure of efficiency studied is the number of mind changes a learning algorithm is allowed to perform. In this setting we consider the problem whether or not the monotonicity constraints introduced do influence the efficiency of learning algo...
Learning Recursive Languages with Bounded Mind Changes
, 1993
"... In the present paper we study the learnability of enumerable families L of uniformly recursive languages in dependence on the number of allowed mind changes, i.e., with respect to a wellstudied measure of efficiency. We distinguish between exact learnability (L has to be inferred w.r.t. L) and cla ..."
Abstract

Cited by 13 (12 self)
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In the present paper we study the learnability of enumerable families L of uniformly recursive languages in dependence on the number of allowed mind changes, i.e., with respect to a wellstudied measure of efficiency. We distinguish between exact learnability (L has to be inferred w.r.t. L) and class preserving learning (L has to be inferred w.r.t. some suitable chosen enumeration of all the languages from L) as well as between learning from positive and from both, positive and negative data. The measure of efficiency is applied to prove the superiority of class preserving learning algorithms over exact learning. In particular, we considerably improve results obtained previously and establish two infinite hierarchies. Furthermore, we separate exact and class preserving learning from positive data that avoids overgeneralization. Finally, language learning with a bounded number of mind changes is completely characterized in terms of recursively generable finite sets. These characterizat...
Revised
, 1992
"... We study the construction of prediction algorithms in a situation in which a learner faces a sequence of trials, with a prediction to be made in each, and the goal of the learner is to make few mistakes. We are interested in the case that the learner has reason to believe that one of some pool of kn ..."
Abstract
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We study the construction of prediction algorithms in a situation in which a learner faces a sequence of trials, with a prediction to be made in each, and the goal of the learner is to make few mistakes. We are interested in the case that the learner has reason to believe that one of some pool of known algorithms will perform well, but the learner does not know which one. A simple and e ective method, based on weighted voting, is introduced for constructing a compound algorithm in such a circumstance. We call this method the Weighted Majority Algorithm. We showthat this algorithm is robust in the presence of errors in the data. We discuss various versions of the Weighted Majority Algorithm and prove mistake bounds for them that are closely related to the mistake bounds of the best algorithms of the pool. For example, given a sequence of trials, if there is an algorithm in the pool A that makes at most m mistakes then the Weighted Majority Algorithm will 1