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Adaptive Set Intersections, Unions, and Differences
 In Proceedings of the 11th Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA
, 2000
"... Motivated by boolean queries in text database systems, we consider the problems of finding the intersection, union, or difference of a collection of sorted sets. While the worstcase complexity of these problems is straightforward, we consider a notion of complexity that depends on the particular in ..."
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Cited by 62 (8 self)
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Motivated by boolean queries in text database systems, we consider the problems of finding the intersection, union, or difference of a collection of sorted sets. While the worstcase complexity of these problems is straightforward, we consider a notion of complexity that depends on the particular instance. We develop the idea of a proof that a given set is indeed the correct answer. Proofs, and in particular shortest proofs, are characterized. We present adaptive algorithms that make no a priori assumptions about the problem instance, and show that their running times are within a constant factor of optimal with respect to a natural measure of the difficulty of an instance. In the process, we develop a framework for designing and evaluating adaptive algorithms in the comparison model. 1 Introduction and Overview Our work can be seen in the general context of performing searches quickly in a database or data warehousing environment. The broad issue is that of characterizing what type ...
Numerical Representations as HigherOrder Nested Datatypes
, 1998
"... Number systems serve admirably as templates for container types: a container object of size n is modelled after the representation of the number n and operations on container objects are modelled after their numbertheoretic counterparts. Binomial queues are probably the first data structure that wa ..."
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Cited by 5 (2 self)
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Number systems serve admirably as templates for container types: a container object of size n is modelled after the representation of the number n and operations on container objects are modelled after their numbertheoretic counterparts. Binomial queues are probably the first data structure that was designed with this analogy in mind. In this paper we show how to express these socalled numerical representations as higherorder nested datatypes. A nested datatype allows to capture the structural invariants of a numerical representation, so that the violation of an invariant can be detected at compiletime. We develop a programming method which allows to adapt algorithms to the new representation in a mostly straightforward manner. The framework is employed to implement three different container types: binary randomaccess lists, binomial queues, and 23 finger search trees. The latter data structure, which is treated in some depth, can be seen as the main innovation from a datastruct...
Finger Search Trees
, 2005
"... One of the most studied problems in computer science is the problem of maintaining a sorted sequence of elements to facilitate efficient searches. The prominent solution to the problem is to organize the sorted sequence as a balanced search tree, enabling insertions, deletions and searches in logari ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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One of the most studied problems in computer science is the problem of maintaining a sorted sequence of elements to facilitate efficient searches. The prominent solution to the problem is to organize the sorted sequence as a balanced search tree, enabling insertions, deletions and searches in logarithmic time. Many different search trees have been developed and studied intensively in the literature. A discussion of balanced binary search trees can e.g. be found in [4]. This chapter is devoted to finger search trees which are search trees supporting fingers, i.e. pointers, to elements in the search trees and supporting efficient updates and searches in the vicinity of the fingers. If the sorted sequence is a static set of n elements then a simple and space efficient representation is a sorted array. Searches can be performed by binary search using 1+⌊log n⌋ comparisons (we throughout this chapter let log x denote log 2 max{2, x}). A finger search starting at a particular element of the array can be performed by an exponential search by inspecting elements at distance 2 i − 1 from the finger for increasing i followed by a binary search in a range of 2 ⌊log d ⌋ − 1 elements, where d is the rank difference in the sequence between the finger and the search element. In Figure 11.1 is shown an exponential search for the element 42 starting at 5. In the example d = 20. An exponential search requires
From Time to Space: Fast Algorithms that yield Small and Fast Data Structures
"... Abstract. In many cases, the relation between encoding space and execution time translates into combinatorial lower bounds on the computational complexity of algorithms in the comparison or external memory models. We describe a few cases which illustrate this relation in a distinct direction, where ..."
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Cited by 1 (1 self)
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Abstract. In many cases, the relation between encoding space and execution time translates into combinatorial lower bounds on the computational complexity of algorithms in the comparison or external memory models. We describe a few cases which illustrate this relation in a distinct direction, where fast algorithms inspire compressed encodings or data structures. In particular, we describe the relation between searching in an ordered array and encoding integers; merging sets and encoding a sequence of symbols; and sorting and compressing permutations.