Results 1  10
of
80
Probabilistic Approximation of Metric Spaces and its Algorithmic Applications
 In 37th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 1996
"... The goal of approximating metric spaces by more simple metric spaces has led to the notion of graph spanners [PU89, PS89] and to lowdistortion embeddings in lowdimensional spaces [LLR94], having many algorithmic applications. This paper provides a novel technique for the analysis of randomized ..."
Abstract

Cited by 316 (29 self)
 Add to MetaCart
The goal of approximating metric spaces by more simple metric spaces has led to the notion of graph spanners [PU89, PS89] and to lowdistortion embeddings in lowdimensional spaces [LLR94], having many algorithmic applications. This paper provides a novel technique for the analysis of randomized algorithms for optimization problems on metric spaces, by relating the randomized performance ratio for any metric space to the randomized performance ratio for a set of "simple" metric spaces. We define a notion of a set of metric spaces that probabilisticallyapproximates another metric space. We prove that any metric space can be probabilisticallyapproximated by hierarchically wellseparated trees (HST) with a polylogarithmic distortion. These metric spaces are "simple" as being: (1) tree metrics. (2) natural for applying a divideandconquer algorithmic approach. The technique presented is of particular interest in the context of online computation. A large number of online al...
On Approximating Arbitrary Metrics by Tree Metrics
 In Proceedings of the 30th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 1998
"... This paper is concerned with probabilistic approximation of metric spaces. In previous work we introduced the method of ecient approximation of metrics by more simple families of metrics in a probabilistic fashion. In particular we study probabilistic approximations of arbitrary metric spaces by \hi ..."
Abstract

Cited by 254 (14 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper is concerned with probabilistic approximation of metric spaces. In previous work we introduced the method of ecient approximation of metrics by more simple families of metrics in a probabilistic fashion. In particular we study probabilistic approximations of arbitrary metric spaces by \hierarchically wellseparated tree" metric spaces. This has proved as a useful technique for simplifying the solutions to various problems.
Voronoi Diagrams
 Handbook of Computational Geometry
"... Voronoi diagrams can also be thought of as lower envelopes, in the sense mentioned at the beginning of this subsection. Namely, for each point x not situated on a bisecting curve, the relation p x q defines a total ordering on S. If we construct a set of surfaces H p , p S,in3space such t ..."
Abstract

Cited by 148 (20 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Voronoi diagrams can also be thought of as lower envelopes, in the sense mentioned at the beginning of this subsection. Namely, for each point x not situated on a bisecting curve, the relation p x q defines a total ordering on S. If we construct a set of surfaces H p , p S,in3space such that H p is below H q i# p x q holds, then the projection of their lower envelope equals the abstract Voronoi diagram.
Spanning Trees and Spanners
, 1996
"... We survey results in geometric network design theory, including algorithms for constructing minimum spanning trees and lowdilation graphs. 1 Introduction This survey covers topics in geometric network design theory. The problem is easy to state: connect a collection of sites by a "good" ..."
Abstract

Cited by 139 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We survey results in geometric network design theory, including algorithms for constructing minimum spanning trees and lowdilation graphs. 1 Introduction This survey covers topics in geometric network design theory. The problem is easy to state: connect a collection of sites by a "good" network. For instance, one may wish to connect components of a VLSI circuit by networks of wires, in a way that uses little surface area on the chip, draws little power, and propagates signals quickly. Similar problems come up in other applications such as telecommunications, road network design, and medical imaging [1]. One network design problem, the Traveling Salesman problem, is sufficiently important to have whole books devoted to it [79]. Problems involving some form of geometric minimum or maximum spanning tree also arise in the solution of other geometric problems such as clustering [12], mesh generation [56], and robot motion planning [93]. One can vary the network design problem in many w...
ClosestPoint Problems in Computational Geometry
, 1997
"... This is the preliminary version of a chapter that will appear in the Handbook on Computational Geometry, edited by J.R. Sack and J. Urrutia. A comprehensive overview is given of algorithms and data structures for proximity problems on point sets in IR D . In particular, the closest pair problem, th ..."
Abstract

Cited by 65 (14 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This is the preliminary version of a chapter that will appear in the Handbook on Computational Geometry, edited by J.R. Sack and J. Urrutia. A comprehensive overview is given of algorithms and data structures for proximity problems on point sets in IR D . In particular, the closest pair problem, the exact and approximate postoffice problem, and the problem of constructing spanners are discussed in detail. Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 The static closest pair problem 4 2.1 Preliminary remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 Algorithms that are optimal in the algebraic computation tree model . 5 2.2.1 An algorithm based on the Voronoi diagram . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2.2 A divideandconquer algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2.3 A plane sweep algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3 A deterministic algorithm that uses indirect addressing . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3.1 The degraded grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
Balancing Minimum Spanning and Shortest Path Trees
, 1993
"... Efficient algorithms are known for computing a minimum spann.ing tree, or a shortest path. tree (with a fixed vertex as the root). The weight of a shortest path tree can be much more than the weight of a minimum spa,nning tree. Conversely, the distance bet,ween the root, and any vertex in a minimum ..."
Abstract

Cited by 64 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Efficient algorithms are known for computing a minimum spann.ing tree, or a shortest path. tree (with a fixed vertex as the root). The weight of a shortest path tree can be much more than the weight of a minimum spa,nning tree. Conversely, the distance bet,ween the root, and any vertex in a minimum spanning tree may be much more than the distance bet#ween the two vertices in the graph. Consider the problem of balancing between the two kinds of trees: Does every graph contain a tree that is “light ” (at most a constant times heavier than the minimum spanning t,ree), such that the distance from the root to any vertex in t,he tree is no more than a constant times the true distance? This paper answers the question in the affirmative. It is shown that there is a continuous tradeoff between the two parameters. For every y> 0, there is a tree in the graph whose total weight is at most 1 + $? times the weight of a minimum spanning tree, such that the di&nce in the tree between the root, and any vertex is at, most 1 + &y times the true distance. Efficient sequential and parallel algorithms achieving these factors are provided. The algorithms are shown to be optimal in two ways. First, it is shown that no algorithm can achieve better factors in all graphs, because there a.re graphs that do not have better trees. Second, it is shown that even on a pergraph basis, finding trees that achieve better factors is NPhard.
Faster Algorithms for Some Geometric Graph Problems in Higher Dimensions
, 1993
"... We show how to apply the wellseparated pair decomposition of a pointset P in ! d to significantly improve known time bounds on several geometric graph problems. We first present an algorithm to find an approximate Euclidean minimum spanning tree of P whose weight is at most 1 + ffl times the exa ..."
Abstract

Cited by 59 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We show how to apply the wellseparated pair decomposition of a pointset P in ! d to significantly improve known time bounds on several geometric graph problems. We first present an algorithm to find an approximate Euclidean minimum spanning tree of P whose weight is at most 1 + ffl times the exact minimum. We achieve a time complexity of O(n log n + (ffl \Gammad=2 log 1 ffl )n), improving the best known bound of O(ffl \Gammad n log n). We then show how to construct a graph with O(ffl \Gammad+1 n) edges in which the shortest path between any pair of points is within 1 + ffl of the Euclidean distance. Our time complexity is O(n log n+(ffl \Gammad log 1 ffl )n), a significant improvement over the best previous algorithm that produces a graph of this size. Finally, we show how to compute the exact Euclidean minimum spanning tree in time O(T d (n; n) log n), where T d (m; n) is the time to find the bichromatic closest pair between m red points and n blue points. The previo...
On the Hardness of Approximating Spanners
 Algorithmica
, 1999
"... A k\Gammaspanner of a connected graph G = (V; E) is a subgraph G 0 consisting of all the vertices of V and a subset of the edges, with the additional property that the distance between any two vertices in G 0 is larger than the distance in G by no more than a factor of k. This paper concerns ..."
Abstract

Cited by 51 (12 self)
 Add to MetaCart
A k\Gammaspanner of a connected graph G = (V; E) is a subgraph G 0 consisting of all the vertices of V and a subset of the edges, with the additional property that the distance between any two vertices in G 0 is larger than the distance in G by no more than a factor of k. This paper concerns the hardness of finding spanners with a number of edges close to the optimum. It is proved that for every fixed k, approximating the spanner problem is at least as hard as approximating the set cover problem We also consider a weighted version of the spanner problem, and prove an essential difference between the approximability of the case k = 2, and the case k 5. Department of Computer Science, The Open University, 16 Klauzner st., Ramat Aviv, Israel, guyk@shaked.openu.ac.il. 1 Introduction The concept of graph spanners has been studied in several recent papers in the context of communication networks, distributed computing, robotics and computational geometry [ADDJ90, C94, CK94,...
Approximating the stretch factor of Euclidean paths, cycles and trees
 SIAM J. Comput
, 1999
"... Given a set S of n points in R d , and a graph G having the points of S as its vertices, the stretch factor t of G is dened as the maximal value jpqj G =jpqj, where p; q 2 S, p 6= q, jpqj G is the length of a shortest path in G between p and q, and jpqj is the Euclidean distance between p and ..."
Abstract

Cited by 49 (7 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Given a set S of n points in R d , and a graph G having the points of S as its vertices, the stretch factor t of G is dened as the maximal value jpqj G =jpqj, where p; q 2 S, p 6= q, jpqj G is the length of a shortest path in G between p and q, and jpqj is the Euclidean distance between p and q. We consider the problem of designing algorithms that, for an arbitrary constant > 0, compute an approximation to this stretch factor, i.e., a value t such that t t (1 + )t. We give eÆcient solutions for the cases when G is a path, cycle, or tree. The main idea used in all the algorithms is to use wellseparated pair decompositions to speed up the computations. 1 Introduction Let S be a set of n points in R d , where d 1 is a small constant, and let G be an undirected connected graph having the points of S as its vertices. The length of any edge (p; q) of G is dened as the Euclidean distance jpqj between the two vertices p and q. The length of a path in G is dened a...
Fast greedy algorithms for constructing sparse geometric spanners
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2002
"... Abstract. Given a set V of n points in R d and a realconstant t>1, we present the first O(n log n)time algorithm to compute a geometric tspanner on V. A geometric tspanner on V is a connected graph G =(V,E) with edge weights equalto the Euclidean distances between the endpoints, and with the p ..."
Abstract

Cited by 47 (10 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Abstract. Given a set V of n points in R d and a realconstant t>1, we present the first O(n log n)time algorithm to compute a geometric tspanner on V. A geometric tspanner on V is a connected graph G =(V,E) with edge weights equalto the Euclidean distances between the endpoints, and with the property that, for all u, v ∈ V, the distance between u and v in G is at most t times the Euclidean distance between u and v. The spanner output by the algorithm has O(n) edges and weight O(1) · wt(MST), and its degree is bounded by a constant.