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Evaluation Methodologies for Intelligent Tutoring Systems
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education
, 1993
"... As intelligent tutoring system (ITS) issues are investigated and intelligent tutoring systems are developed, evaluation methodology becomes important. Basic researchers, system developers, and educators working with ITS all have motives for becoming involved in ITS evaluation. In formative evaluatio ..."
Abstract

Cited by 48 (1 self)
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As intelligent tutoring system (ITS) issues are investigated and intelligent tutoring systems are developed, evaluation methodology becomes important. Basic researchers, system developers, and educators working with ITS all have motives for becoming involved in ITS evaluation. In formative evaluation, researchers examine a system under development, to identify problems and guide modifications. By contrast, summative evaluation is carried out to support formal claims about the construction, behaviour of, or outcomes associated with a completed system. Different methodologies are suitable for different types of evaluation, some focusing on internal considerations, such as architecture and behaviour, others on external considerations, such as educational impact. This paper draws upon the areas of intelligent tutoring systems research, expert systems design, computerbased instruction, education, and psychology to identify techniques for the formative and summative evaluation of ITS. Evalu...
An Analogical Reasoning Based Mathematics Tutoring System
, 1996
"... Mathematics is a subject which many students have difficulty with, and hence, there is a need for remedial methods of tuition. To make the domain of mathematical equations more accessible to novices, we have developed a graphical notation for explaining equations. This notation has been designed to ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1 (0 self)
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Mathematics is a subject which many students have difficulty with, and hence, there is a need for remedial methods of tuition. To make the domain of mathematical equations more accessible to novices, we have developed a graphical notation for explaining equations. This notation has been designed to make term manipulation more comprehensible and memorable. The representations of the equations are called visual equation metaphors (VEMs) and consist of simple geometrical shapes. We have produced a computer program, called the VEM generator, that is able to generate geometric analogies based upon equations. We have constructed a computerbased VEM tutor, that uses these geometric analogies to teach users about collecting similar terms together and moving terms from one side of an equation to another. Both programs have been implemented in LPA MacPROLOG 3.5 and run on the Apple Macintosh. A study has been carried out to test the viability of the VEM theory and the VEM tutor, so that potenti...