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A symbolicconnectionist theory of relational inference and generalization
 Psychological Review
, 2003
"... The authors present a theory of how relational inference and generalization can be accomplished within a cognitive architecture that is psychologically and neurally realistic. Their proposal is a form of symbolic connectionism: a connectionist system based on distributed representations of concept m ..."
Abstract

Cited by 68 (11 self)
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The authors present a theory of how relational inference and generalization can be accomplished within a cognitive architecture that is psychologically and neurally realistic. Their proposal is a form of symbolic connectionism: a connectionist system based on distributed representations of concept meanings, using temporal synchrony to bind fillers and roles into relational structures. The authors present a specific instantiation of their theory in the form of a computer simulation model, Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogies (LISA). By using a kind of selfsupervised learning, LISA can make specific inferences and form new relational generalizations and can hence acquire new schemas by induction from examples. The authors demonstrate the sufficiency of the model by using it to simulate a body of empirical phenomena concerning analogical inference and relational generalization. A fundamental aspect of human intelligence is the ability to form and manipulate relational representations. Examples of relational thinking include the ability to appreciate analogies between seemingly different objects or events (Gentner, 1983; Holyoak & Thagard, 1995), the ability to apply abstract rules in novel situations (e.g., Smith, Langston, & Nisbett, 1992), the ability to understand and learn language (e.g., Kim, Pinker, Prince, & Prasada, 1991), and even the ability to appreciate perceptual similarities
Developmental changes within the core of artifact concepts
, 2001
"... Three experiments addressed the relative importance of original function and current function in artifact categorization. Subjects were asked to judge whether an artifact that was made for one purpose (e.g. making tea) and was currently being used for another purpose (e.g. watering flowers) was a te ..."
Abstract

Cited by 32 (1 self)
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Three experiments addressed the relative importance of original function and current function in artifact categorization. Subjects were asked to judge whether an artifact that was made for one purpose (e.g. making tea) and was currently being used for another purpose (e.g. watering flowers) was a teapot or a watering can. Experiment 1 replicated the finding by Hall (1995) (unpublished manuscript) that adults rely on the original function of an artifact over a current function in their kind judgments. Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that whereas the kind judgments of 6yearolds, like those of adults, patterned with the original function, those of 4yearolds did not. Fouryearolds were influenced by the order in which the functions were mentioned in the story. Further, in their justifications 6yearolds and adults referred to the origin of the objects, whereas 4yearolds virtually never did. We conclude that 6yearolds have begun to organize their understanding of artifacts around the notion of original function, and that 4yearolds have not. The data are discussed as they bear on children's understanding of the design stance (Dennett, D. C. (1987). The intentional stance. Cambridge,
An Analogical Reasoning Based Mathematics Tutoring System
, 1996
"... Mathematics is a subject which many students have difficulty with, and hence, there is a need for remedial methods of tuition. To make the domain of mathematical equations more accessible to novices, we have developed a graphical notation for explaining equations. This notation has been designed to ..."
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Mathematics is a subject which many students have difficulty with, and hence, there is a need for remedial methods of tuition. To make the domain of mathematical equations more accessible to novices, we have developed a graphical notation for explaining equations. This notation has been designed to make term manipulation more comprehensible and memorable. The representations of the equations are called visual equation metaphors (VEMs) and consist of simple geometrical shapes. We have produced a computer program, called the VEM generator, that is able to generate geometric analogies based upon equations. We have constructed a computerbased VEM tutor, that uses these geometric analogies to teach users about collecting similar terms together and moving terms from one side of an equation to another. Both programs have been implemented in LPA MacPROLOG 3.5 and run on the Apple Macintosh. A study has been carried out to test the viability of the VEM theory and the VEM tutor, so that potenti...
Enhancing the Comprehension of Science Text through Visual Analogies
"... Instructional analogies are commonly used in science and mathematics text, yet students may have difficulty understanding analogies in the absence of adequate instructional support. In spatially rich domains like geoscience, visual depictions of both the base and target concepts of text analogies (i ..."
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Instructional analogies are commonly used in science and mathematics text, yet students may have difficulty understanding analogies in the absence of adequate instructional support. In spatially rich domains like geoscience, visual depictions of both the base and target concepts of text analogies (i.e. visual analogies) may provide crucial support for students. To test whether visual analogies would be beneficial for learning, 72 fourth and fifthgrade students were provided a short analogyenhanced instructional text on plate tectonics that included either pictures of both the base and target concepts (Visual Analogy condition) or the pictures of the target concept only (Target Picture condition). Results indicated that children in the Visual Analogy condition outperformed children in the Target Picture condition on both near and far transfer measures. These results are consistent with recent research suggesting that factors that promote comparison – such as sidebyside presentation of examples – facilitate learning from text.