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37
DecisionTheoretic Foundations of Qualitative Possibility Theory
 European Journal of Operational Research
, 2000
"... This paper presents a justification of two qualitative counterparts of the expected utility criterion for decision under uncertainty, which only require bounded, linearly ordered, valuation sets for expressing uncertainty and preferences. This is carried out in the style of Savage, starting with ..."
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Cited by 51 (7 self)
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This paper presents a justification of two qualitative counterparts of the expected utility criterion for decision under uncertainty, which only require bounded, linearly ordered, valuation sets for expressing uncertainty and preferences. This is carried out in the style of Savage, starting with a set of acts equipped with a complete preordering relation. Conditions on acts are given that imply a possibilistic representation of the decisionmaker uncertainty. In this framework, pessimistic (i.e., uncertaintyaverse) as well as optimistic attitudes can be explicitly captured. The approach thus proposes an operationally testable description of possibility theory. 1
Supremum Preserving Upper Probabilities
, 1998
"... We study the relation between possibility measures and the theory of imprecise probabilities, and argue that possibility measures have an important part in this theory. It is shown that a possibility measure is a coherent upper probability if and only if it is normal. A detailed comparison is giv ..."
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Cited by 37 (12 self)
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We study the relation between possibility measures and the theory of imprecise probabilities, and argue that possibility measures have an important part in this theory. It is shown that a possibility measure is a coherent upper probability if and only if it is normal. A detailed comparison is given between the possibilistic and natural extension of an upper probability, both in the general case and for upper probabilities dened on a class of nested sets. We prove in particular that a possibility measure is the restriction to events of the natural extension of a special kind of upper probability, dened on a class of nested sets. We show that possibilistic extension can be interpreted in terms of natural extension. We also prove that when either the upper or the lower cumulative distribution function of a random quantity is specied, possibility measures very naturally emerge as the corresponding natural extensions. Next, we go from upper probabilities to upper previsions...
Qualitative decision theory: from Savage’s axioms to nonmonotonic reasoning
 Journal of the ACM
, 2002
"... Abstract: This paper investigates to what extent a purely symbolic approach to decision making under uncertainty is possible, in the scope of Artificial Intelligence. Contrary to classical approaches to decision theory, we try to rank acts without resorting to any numerical representation of utility ..."
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Cited by 31 (0 self)
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Abstract: This paper investigates to what extent a purely symbolic approach to decision making under uncertainty is possible, in the scope of Artificial Intelligence. Contrary to classical approaches to decision theory, we try to rank acts without resorting to any numerical representation of utility nor uncertainty, and without using any scale on which both uncertainty and preference could be mapped. Our approach is a variant of Savage's where the setting is finite, and the strict preference on acts is a partial order. It is shown that although many axioms of Savage theory are preserved and despite the intuitive appeal of the ordinal method for constructing a preference over acts, the approach is inconsistent with a probabilistic representation of uncertainty. The latter leads to the kind of paradoxes encountered in the theory of voting. It is shown that the assumption of ordinal invariance enforces a qualitative decision procedure that presupposes a comparative possibility representation of uncertainty, originally due to Lewis, and usual in nonmonotonic reasoning. Our axiomatic investigation thus provides decisiontheoretic foundations to preferential inference of Lehmann and colleagues. However, the obtained decision rules are sometimes either not very decisive or may lead to overconfident decisions, although their basic principles look sound. This paper points out some limitations of purely ordinal approaches to Savagelike decision making under uncertainty, in perfect analogy with similar difficulties in voting theory.
New Semantics For Quantitative Possibility Theory
 2ND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON IMPRECISE PROBABILITIES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS, ITHACA, NEW YORK
, 2001
"... New semantics for numerical values given to possibility measures are provided. For epistemic possibilities, the new approach is based on the semantics of the transferable belief model, itself based on betting odds interpreted in a less drastic way than what subjective probabilities presupposes. It i ..."
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Cited by 31 (3 self)
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New semantics for numerical values given to possibility measures are provided. For epistemic possibilities, the new approach is based on the semantics of the transferable belief model, itself based on betting odds interpreted in a less drastic way than what subjective probabilities presupposes. It is shown that the least informative among the belief structures that are compatible with prescribed betting rates is nested, i.e. corresponds to a possibility measure. It is also proved that the idempotent conjunctive combination of two possibility measures corresponds to the hypercautious conjunctive combination of the belief functions induced by the possibility measures. This view di#ers from the subjective semantics first proposed by Giles and relying on upper and lower probability induced by nonexchangeable bets. For objective possibility degrees, the semantics is based on the most informative possibilistic approximation of a probability measure derived from a histogram. The motivation for this semantics is its capability to extend a wellknown kind of confidence intervals around the mode of a distribution to a fuzzy confidence interval. We show how the idempotent disjunctive combination of possibility functions is related to the convex mixture of probability distributions.
Possibility theory and statistical reasoning
 Computational Statistics & Data Analysis Vol
, 2006
"... Numerical possibility distributions can encode special convex families of probability measures. The connection between possibility theory and probability theory is potentially fruitful in the scope of statistical reasoning when uncertainty due to variability of observations should be distinguished f ..."
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Cited by 26 (2 self)
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Numerical possibility distributions can encode special convex families of probability measures. The connection between possibility theory and probability theory is potentially fruitful in the scope of statistical reasoning when uncertainty due to variability of observations should be distinguished from uncertainty due to incomplete information. This paper proposes an overview of numerical possibility theory. Its aim is to show that some notions in statistics are naturally interpreted in the language of this theory. First, probabilistic inequalites (like Chebychev’s) offer a natural setting for devising possibility distributions from poor probabilistic information. Moreover, likelihood functions obey the laws of possibility theory when no prior probability is available. Possibility distributions also generalize the notion of confidence or prediction intervals, shedding some light on the role of the mode of asymmetric probability densities in the derivation of maximally informative interval substitutes of probabilistic information. Finally, the simulation of fuzzy sets comes down to selecting a probabilistic representation of a possibility distribution, which coincides with the Shapley value of the corresponding consonant capacity. This selection process is in agreement with Laplace indifference principle and is closely connected with the mean interval of a fuzzy interval. It sheds light on the “defuzzification ” process in fuzzy set theory and provides a natural definition of a subjective possibility distribution that sticks to the Bayesian framework of exchangeable bets. Potential applications to risk assessment are pointed out. 1
Qualitative Decision Theory with Sugeno Integrals
 in: Proc. 14th Conf. on Uncertainty in Arti cial Intelligence
, 1998
"... This paper presents an axiomatic framework for qualitative decision under uncertainty in a finite setting. The corresponding utility is expressed by a supmin expression, called Sugeno (or fuzzy) integral. Technically speaking, Sugeno integral is a median, which is indeed a qualitative counter ..."
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Cited by 22 (11 self)
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This paper presents an axiomatic framework for qualitative decision under uncertainty in a finite setting. The corresponding utility is expressed by a supmin expression, called Sugeno (or fuzzy) integral. Technically speaking, Sugeno integral is a median, which is indeed a qualitative counterpart to the averaging operation underlying expected utility. The axiomatic justification of Sugeno integralbased utility is expressed in terms of preference between acts as in Savage decision theory. Pessimistic and optimistic qualitative utilities, based on necessity and possibility measures, previously introduced by two of the authors, can be retrieved in this setting by adding appropriate axioms. 1
Quantified epistemic possibility theory seen as an hyper cautious Transferable Belief Model
 RENCONTRES FRANCOPHONES SUR LA LOGIQUE FLOUE ET SES APPLICATIONS (LFA 2000)
, 2000
"... We provide a semantic for the values given to possibility measures. It is based on the semantic of the transferable belief model, itself based on the same approach as used for subjective probabilities. Besides we explain how the conjunctive combination of two possibility measures corresponds to the ..."
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Cited by 14 (0 self)
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We provide a semantic for the values given to possibility measures. It is based on the semantic of the transferable belief model, itself based on the same approach as used for subjective probabilities. Besides we explain how the conjunctive combination of two possibility measures corresponds to the hypercautious conjunctive combination of the belief functions induced by the possibility measures.
Extending Description Logics with Uncertainty Reasoning in Possibilistic Logic
, 2007
"... Possibilistic logic provides a convenient tool for dealing with inconsistency and handling uncertainty. In this paper, we propose possibilistic description logics as an extension of description logics. We give semantics and syntax of possibilistic description logics. We then define two inference se ..."
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Cited by 13 (2 self)
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Possibilistic logic provides a convenient tool for dealing with inconsistency and handling uncertainty. In this paper, we propose possibilistic description logics as an extension of description logics. We give semantics and syntax of possibilistic description logics. We then define two inference services in possibilistic description logics. Since possibilistic inference suffers from the drowning problem, we consider a drowningfree variant of possibilistic inference, called linear order inference. Finally, we implement the algorithms for inference services in possibilistic description logics using KAON2 reasoner.
Fusion rules for merging uncertain information
 Information Fusion
, 2006
"... In previous papers, we have presented a logicbased framework based on fusion rules for merging structured news reports [Hun00, Hun02b, Hun02a, HS03, HS04]. Structured news reports are XML documents, where the textentries are restricted to individual words or simple phrases, such as names and domain ..."
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Cited by 13 (2 self)
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In previous papers, we have presented a logicbased framework based on fusion rules for merging structured news reports [Hun00, Hun02b, Hun02a, HS03, HS04]. Structured news reports are XML documents, where the textentries are restricted to individual words or simple phrases, such as names and domainspecific terminology, and numbers and units. We assume structured news reports do not require natural language processing. Fusion rules are a form of scripting language that define how structured news reports should be merged. The antecedent of a fusion rule is a call to investigate the information in the structured news reports and the background knowledge, and the consequent of a fusion rule is a formula specifying an action to be undertaken to form a merged report. It is expected that a set of fusion rules is defined for any given application. In this paper we extend the approach to handling probability values, degrees of beliefs, or necessity measures associated with textentries in the news reports. We present the formal definition for each of these types of uncertainty and explain how they can be handled using fusion rules. We also discuss the methods of detecting inconsistencies among sources. 1