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399
Correcting sample selection bias by unlabeled data
"... We consider the scenario where training and test data are drawn from different distributions, commonly referred to as sample selection bias. Most algorithms for this setting try to first recover sampling distributions and then make appropriate corrections based on the distribution estimate. We prese ..."
Abstract

Cited by 134 (9 self)
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We consider the scenario where training and test data are drawn from different distributions, commonly referred to as sample selection bias. Most algorithms for this setting try to first recover sampling distributions and then make appropriate corrections based on the distribution estimate. We present a nonparametric method which directly produces resampling weights without distribution estimation. Our method works by matching distributions between training and testing sets in feature space. Experimental results demonstrate that our method works well in practice.
A support vector method for optimizing average precision
 In Proceedings of SIGIR’07
, 2007
"... Machine learning is commonly used to improve ranked retrieval systems. Due to computational difficulties, few learning techniques have been developed to directly optimize for mean average precision (MAP), despite its widespread use in evaluating such systems. Existing approaches optimizing MAP eithe ..."
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Cited by 120 (5 self)
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Machine learning is commonly used to improve ranked retrieval systems. Due to computational difficulties, few learning techniques have been developed to directly optimize for mean average precision (MAP), despite its widespread use in evaluating such systems. Existing approaches optimizing MAP either do not find a globally optimal solution, or are computationally expensive. In contrast, we present a general SVM learning algorithm that efficiently finds a globally optimal solution to a straightforward relaxation of MAP. We evaluate our approach using the TREC 9 and TREC 10 Web Track corpora (WT10g), comparing against SVMs optimized for accuracy and ROCArea. In most cases we show our method to produce statistically significant improvements in MAP scores.
Maximum margin planning
 In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML’06
, 2006
"... Imitation learning of sequential, goaldirected behavior by standard supervised techniques is often difficult. We frame learning such behaviors as a maximum margin structured prediction problem over a space of policies. In this approach, we learn mappings from features to cost so an optimal policy in ..."
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Cited by 107 (26 self)
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Imitation learning of sequential, goaldirected behavior by standard supervised techniques is often difficult. We frame learning such behaviors as a maximum margin structured prediction problem over a space of policies. In this approach, we learn mappings from features to cost so an optimal policy in an MDP with these cost mimics the expert’s behavior. Further, we demonstrate a simple, provably efficient approach to structured maximum margin learning, based on the subgradient method, that leverages existing fast algorithms for inference. Although the technique is general, it is particularly relevant in problems where A * and dynamic programming approaches make learning policies tractable in problems beyond the limitations of a QP formulation. We demonstrate our approach applied to route planning for outdoor mobile robots, where the behavior a designer wishes a planner to execute is often clear, while specifying cost functions that engender this behavior is a much more difficult task. 1.
Learning CRFs using Graph Cuts
"... Abstract. Many computer vision problems are naturally formulated as random fields, specifically MRFs or CRFs. The introduction of graph cuts has enabled efficient and optimal inference in associative random fields, greatly advancing applications such as segmentation, stereo reconstruction and many o ..."
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Cited by 79 (6 self)
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Abstract. Many computer vision problems are naturally formulated as random fields, specifically MRFs or CRFs. The introduction of graph cuts has enabled efficient and optimal inference in associative random fields, greatly advancing applications such as segmentation, stereo reconstruction and many others. However, while fast inference is now widespread, parameter learning in random fields has remained an intractable problem. This paper shows how to apply fast inference algorithms, in particular graph cuts, to learn parameters of random fields with similar efficiency. We find optimal parameter values under standard regularized objective functions that ensure good generalization. Our algorithm enables learning of many parameters in reasonable time, and we explore further speedup techniques. We also discuss extensions to nonassociative and multiclass problems. We evaluate the method on image segmentation and geometry recognition. 1
(Online) Subgradient Methods for Structured Prediction
"... Promising approaches to structured learning problems have recently been developed in the maximum margin framework. Unfortunately, algorithms that are computationally and memory efficient enough to solve large scale problems have lagged behind. We propose using simple subgradientbased techniques for ..."
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Cited by 64 (15 self)
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Promising approaches to structured learning problems have recently been developed in the maximum margin framework. Unfortunately, algorithms that are computationally and memory efficient enough to solve large scale problems have lagged behind. We propose using simple subgradientbased techniques for optimizing a regularized risk formulation of these problems in both online and batch settings, and analyze the theoretical convergence, generalization, and robustness properties of the resulting techniques. These algorithms are are simple, memory efficient, fast to converge, and have small regret in the online setting. We also investigate a novel convex regression formulation of structured learning. Finally, we demonstrate the benefits of the subgradient approach on three structured prediction problems. 1
A General Boosting Method and its Application to Learning Ranking Functions for Web Search Neur
 Inf. Proc. Sys. Conf
, 2008
"... We present a general boosting method extending functional gradient boosting to optimize complex loss functions that are encountered in many machine learning problems. Our approach is based on optimization of quadratic upper bounds of the loss functions which allows us to present a rigorous convergen ..."
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Cited by 59 (12 self)
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We present a general boosting method extending functional gradient boosting to optimize complex loss functions that are encountered in many machine learning problems. Our approach is based on optimization of quadratic upper bounds of the loss functions which allows us to present a rigorous convergence analysis of the algorithm. More importantly, this general framework enables us to use a standard regression base learner such as single regression tree for £tting any loss function. We illustrate an application of the proposed method in learning ranking functions for Web search by combining both preference data and labeled data for training. We present experimental results for Web search using data from a commercial search engine that show signi£cant improvements of our proposed methods over some existing methods. 1
A scalable modular convex solver for regularized risk minimization
 In KDD. ACM
, 2007
"... A wide variety of machine learning problems can be described as minimizing a regularized risk functional, with different algorithms using different notions of risk and different regularizers. Examples include linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Logistic Regression, Conditional Random Fields (CRFs ..."
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Cited by 59 (14 self)
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A wide variety of machine learning problems can be described as minimizing a regularized risk functional, with different algorithms using different notions of risk and different regularizers. Examples include linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Logistic Regression, Conditional Random Fields (CRFs), and Lasso amongst others. This paper describes the theory and implementation of a highly scalable and modular convex solver which solves all these estimation problems. It can be parallelized on a cluster of workstations, allows for datalocality, and can deal with regularizers such as ℓ1 and ℓ2 penalties. At present, our solver implements 20 different estimation problems, can be easily extended, scales to millions of observations, and is up to 10 times faster than specialized solvers for many applications. The open source code is freely available as part of the ELEFANT toolbox.
Information extraction
 FnT Databases
"... The automatic extraction of information from unstructured sources has opened up new avenues for querying, organizing, and analyzing data by drawing upon the clean semantics of structured databases and the abundance of unstructured data. The field of information extraction has its genesis in the natu ..."
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Cited by 55 (2 self)
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The automatic extraction of information from unstructured sources has opened up new avenues for querying, organizing, and analyzing data by drawing upon the clean semantics of structured databases and the abundance of unstructured data. The field of information extraction has its genesis in the natural language processing community where the primary impetus came from competitions centered around the recognition of named entities like people names and organization from news articles. As society became more data oriented with easy online access to both structured and unstructured data, new applications of structure extraction came around. Now, there is interest in converting our personal desktops to structured databases, the knowledge in scientific publications to structured records, and harnessing the Internet for structured fact finding queries. Consequently, there are many different communities of researchers bringing in techniques from machine learning, databases, information retrieval, and computational linguistics for various aspects of the information extraction problem. This review is a survey of information extraction research of over two decades from these diverse communities. We create a taxonomy of the field along various dimensions derived from the nature of theextraction task, the techniques used for extraction, the variety of input resources exploited, and the type of output produced. We elaborate on rulebased and statistical methods for entity and relationship extraction. In each case we highlight the different kinds of models for capturing the diversity of clues driving the recognition process and the algorithms for training and efficiently deploying the models. We survey techniques for optimizing the various steps in an information extraction pipeline, adapting to dynamic data, integrating with existing entities and handling uncertainty in the extraction process. 1
Recovering the Spatial Layout of Cluttered Rooms
"... In this paper, we consider the problem of recovering the spatial layout of indoor scenes from monocular images. The presence of clutter is a major problem for existing singleview 3D reconstruction algorithms, most of which rely on finding the groundwall boundary. In most rooms, this boundary is par ..."
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Cited by 52 (7 self)
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In this paper, we consider the problem of recovering the spatial layout of indoor scenes from monocular images. The presence of clutter is a major problem for existing singleview 3D reconstruction algorithms, most of which rely on finding the groundwall boundary. In most rooms, this boundary is partially or entirely occluded. We gain robustness to clutter by modeling the global room space with a parameteric 3D “box ” and by iteratively localizing clutter and refitting the box. To fit the box, we introduce a structured learning algorithm that chooses the set of parameters to minimize error, based on global perspective cues. On a dataset of 308 images, we demonstrate the ability of our algorithm to recover spatial layout in cluttered rooms and show several examples of estimated free space. 1.