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266
SemiSupervised Learning Literature Survey
, 2006
"... We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a chapter ..."
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Cited by 447 (8 self)
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We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a chapter excerpt from the author’s
doctoral thesis (Zhu, 2005). However the author plans to update the online version frequently to incorporate the latest development in the field. Please obtain the latest
version at http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~jerryzhu/pub/ssl_survey.pdf
Statistical properties of community structure in large social and information networks
"... A large body of work has been devoted to identifying community structure in networks. A community is often though of as a set of nodes that has more connections between its members than to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we characterize as a function of size the statistical and structur ..."
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Cited by 120 (10 self)
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A large body of work has been devoted to identifying community structure in networks. A community is often though of as a set of nodes that has more connections between its members than to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we characterize as a function of size the statistical and structural properties of such sets of nodes. We define the network community profile plot, which characterizes the “best ” possible community—according to the conductance measure—over a wide range of size scales, and we study over 70 large sparse realworld networks taken from a wide range of application domains. Our results suggest a significantly more refined picture of community structure in large realworld networks than has been appreciated previously. Our most striking finding is that in nearly every network dataset we examined, we observe tight but almost trivial communities at very small scales, and at larger size scales, the best possible communities gradually “blend in ” with the rest of the network and thus become less “communitylike.” This behavior is not explained, even at a qualitative level, by any of the commonlyused network generation models. Moreover, this behavior is exactly the opposite of what one would expect based on experience with and intuition from expander graphs, from graphs that are wellembeddable in a lowdimensional structure, and from small social networks that have served as testbeds of community detection algorithms. We have found, however, that a generative model, in which new edges are added via an iterative “forest fire” burning process, is able to produce graphs exhibiting a network community structure similar to our observations.
Community structure in large networks: Natural cluster sizes and the absence of large welldefined clusters
, 2008
"... A large body of work has been devoted to defining and identifying clusters or communities in social and information networks, i.e., in graphs in which the nodes represent underlying social entities and the edges represent some sort of interaction between pairs of nodes. Most such research begins wit ..."
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Cited by 79 (6 self)
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A large body of work has been devoted to defining and identifying clusters or communities in social and information networks, i.e., in graphs in which the nodes represent underlying social entities and the edges represent some sort of interaction between pairs of nodes. Most such research begins with the premise that a community or a cluster should be thought of as a set of nodes that has more and/or better connections between its members than to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we explore from a novel perspective several questions related to identifying meaningful communities in large social and information networks, and we come to several striking conclusions. Rather than defining a procedure to extract sets of nodes from a graph and then attempt to interpret these sets as a “real ” communities, we employ approximation algorithms for the graph partitioning problem to characterize as a function of size the statistical and structural properties of partitions of graphs that could plausibly be interpreted as communities. In particular, we define the network community profile plot, which characterizes the “best ” possible community—according to the conductance measure—over a wide range of size scales. We study over 100 large realworld networks, ranging from traditional and online social networks, to technological and information networks and
MultiManifold SemiSupervised Learning
"... We study semisupervised learning when the data consists of multiple intersecting manifolds. We give a finite sample analysis to quantify the potential gain of using unlabeled data in this multimanifold setting. We then propose a semisupervised learning algorithm that separates different manifolds ..."
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Cited by 74 (6 self)
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We study semisupervised learning when the data consists of multiple intersecting manifolds. We give a finite sample analysis to quantify the potential gain of using unlabeled data in this multimanifold setting. We then propose a semisupervised learning algorithm that separates different manifolds into decision sets, and performs supervised learning within each set. Our algorithm involves a novel application of Hellinger distance and sizeconstrained spectral clustering. Experiments demonstrate the benefit of our multimanifold semisupervised learning approach. 1
A survey of kernel and spectral methods for clustering
, 2008
"... Clustering algorithms are a useful tool to explore data structures and have been employed in many disciplines. The focus of this paper is the partitioning clustering problem with a special interest in two recent approaches: kernel and spectral methods. The aim of this paper is to present a survey of ..."
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Cited by 45 (3 self)
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Clustering algorithms are a useful tool to explore data structures and have been employed in many disciplines. The focus of this paper is the partitioning clustering problem with a special interest in two recent approaches: kernel and spectral methods. The aim of this paper is to present a survey of kernel and spectral clustering methods, two approaches able to produce nonlinear separating hypersurfaces between clusters. The presented kernel clustering methods are the kernel version of many classical clustering algorithms, e.g., Kmeans, SOM and neural gas. Spectral clustering arise from concepts in spectral graph theory and the clustering problem is configured as a graph cut problem where an appropriate objective function has to be optimized. An explicit proof of the fact that these two paradigms have the same objective is reported since it has been proven that these two seemingly different approaches have the same mathematical foundation. Besides, fuzzy kernel clustering methods are presented as extensions of kernel Kmeans clustering algorithm.
Rankingbased clustering of heterogeneous information networks with star network schema
 In: Proc. 2009 ACM SIGKDD Int. Conf. on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD 2009
, 2009
"... A heterogeneous information network is an information network composed of multiple types of objects. Clustering on such a network may lead to better understanding of both hidden structures of the network and the individual role played by every object in each cluster. However, although clustering on ..."
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Cited by 44 (24 self)
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A heterogeneous information network is an information network composed of multiple types of objects. Clustering on such a network may lead to better understanding of both hidden structures of the network and the individual role played by every object in each cluster. However, although clustering on homogeneous networks has been studied over decades, clustering on heterogeneous networks has not been addressed until recently. A recent study proposed a new algorithm, RankClus, for clustering on bityped heterogeneous networks. However, a realworld network may consist of more than two types, and the interactions among multityped objects play a key role at disclosing the rich semantics that a network carries. In this paper, we study clustering of multityped heterogeneous networks with a star network schema and propose a novel algorithm, NetClus, that utilizes links across multityped objects to generate highquality netclusters. An iterative enhancement method is developed that leads to effective rankingbased clustering in such heterogeneous networks. Our experiments on DBLP data show that NetClus generates more accurate clustering results than the baseline topic model algorithm PLSA and the recently proposed algorithm, RankClus. Further, NetClus generates informative clusters, presenting good ranking and cluster membership information for each attribute object in each netcluster.
Learning spectral clustering, with application to speech separation
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2006
"... Spectral clustering refers to a class of techniques which rely on the eigenstructure of a similarity matrix to partition points into disjoint clusters, with points in the same cluster having high similarity and points in different clusters having low similarity. In this paper, we derive new cost fun ..."
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Cited by 43 (5 self)
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Spectral clustering refers to a class of techniques which rely on the eigenstructure of a similarity matrix to partition points into disjoint clusters, with points in the same cluster having high similarity and points in different clusters having low similarity. In this paper, we derive new cost functions for spectral clustering based on measures of error between a given partition and a solution of the spectral relaxation of a minimum normalized cut problem. Minimizing these cost functions with respect to the partition leads to new spectral clustering algorithms. Minimizing with respect to the similarity matrix leads to algorithms for learning the similarity matrix from fully labelled datasets. We apply our learning algorithm to the blind onemicrophone speech separation problem, casting the problem as one of segmentation of the spectrogram.
Relational learning via latent social dimensions, in 'KDD '09
 Proceedings di of the 15th ACM SIGKDD international ti conference on Knowledge
, 2009
"... Social media such as blogs, Facebook, Flickr, etc., presents data in a network format rather than classical IID distribution. To address the interdependency among data instances, relational learning has been proposed, and collective inference based on network connectivity is adopted for prediction. ..."
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Cited by 40 (16 self)
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Social media such as blogs, Facebook, Flickr, etc., presents data in a network format rather than classical IID distribution. To address the interdependency among data instances, relational learning has been proposed, and collective inference based on network connectivity is adopted for prediction. However, the connections in social media are often multidimensional. An actor can connect to another actor due to different factors, e.g., alumni, colleagues, living in the same city or sharing similar interest, etc. Collective inference normally does not differentiate these connections. In this work, we propose to extract latent social dimensions based on network information first, and then utilize them as features for discriminative learning. These social dimensions describe different affiliations of social actors hidden in the network, and the subsequent discriminative learning can automatically determine which affiliations are better aligned with the class labels. Such a scheme is preferred when multiple diverse relations are associated with the same network. We conduct extensive experiments on social media data (one from a realworld blog site and the other from a popular content sharing site). Our model outperforms representative relational learning methods based on collective inference, especially when few labeled data are available. The sensitivity of this model and its connection to existing methods are also carefully examined.
Fast Approximate Spectral Clustering
, 2009
"... Spectral clustering refers to a flexible class of clustering procedures that can produce highquality clusterings on small data sets but which has limited applicability to largescale problems due to its computational complexity of O(n 3), with n the number of data points. We extend the range of spe ..."
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Cited by 36 (1 self)
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Spectral clustering refers to a flexible class of clustering procedures that can produce highquality clusterings on small data sets but which has limited applicability to largescale problems due to its computational complexity of O(n 3), with n the number of data points. We extend the range of spectral clustering by developing a general framework for fast approximate spectral clustering in which a distortionminimizing local transformation is first applied to the data. This framework is based on a theoretical analysis that provides a statistical characterization of the effect of local distortion on the misclustering rate. We develop two concrete instances of our general framework, one based on local kmeans clustering (KASP) and one based on random projection trees (RASP). Extensive experiments show that these algorithms can achieve significant speedups with little degradation in clustering accuracy. Specifically, our algorithms outperform kmeans by a large margin in terms of accuracy, and run several times faster than approximate spectral clustering based on the Nyström method, with comparable accuracy and significantly smaller memory footprint. Remarkably, our algorithms make it possible for a single machine to spectral cluster data sets with a million observations within several minutes. 1
Unsupervised modeling of object categories using link analysis techniques
 In CVPR
, 2008
"... We propose an approach for learning visual models of object categories in an unsupervised manner in which we first build a largescale complex network which captures the interactions of all unit visual features across the entire training set and we infer information, such as which features are in wh ..."
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Cited by 33 (6 self)
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We propose an approach for learning visual models of object categories in an unsupervised manner in which we first build a largescale complex network which captures the interactions of all unit visual features across the entire training set and we infer information, such as which features are in which categories, directly from the graph by using link analysis techniques. The link analysis techniques are based on wellestablished graph mining techniques used in diverse applications such as WWW, bioinformatics, and social networks. The techniques operate directly on the patterns of connections between features in the graph rather than on statistical properties, e.g., from clustering in feature space. We argue that the resulting techniques are simpler, and we show that they perform similarly or better compared to state of the art techniques on common data sets. We also show results on more challenging data sets than those that have been used in prior work on unsupervised modeling.