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A Treatise on ManyValued Logics
 Studies in Logic and Computation
, 2001
"... The paper considers the fundamental notions of many valued logic together with some of the main trends of the recent development of infinite valued systems, often called mathematical fuzzy logics. Besides this logical approach also a more algebraic approach is discussed. And the paper ends with som ..."
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The paper considers the fundamental notions of many valued logic together with some of the main trends of the recent development of infinite valued systems, often called mathematical fuzzy logics. Besides this logical approach also a more algebraic approach is discussed. And the paper ends with some hints toward applications which are based upon actual theoretical considerations about infinite valued logics. Key words: mathematical fuzzy logic, algebraic semantics, continuous tnorms, leftcontinuous tnorms, Pavelkastyle fuzzy logic, fuzzy set theory, nonmonotonic fuzzy reasoning 1 Basic ideas 1.1 From classical to manyvalued logic Logical systems in general are based on some formalized language which includes a notion of well formed formula, and then are determined either semantically or syntactically. That a logical system is semantically determined means that one has a notion of interpretation or model 1 in the sense that w.r.t. each such interpretation every well formed formula has some (truth) value or represents a function into
Modular Logic Programming and Generalized Quantifiers
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 4TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LOGIC PROGRAMMING AND NONMONOTONIC REASONING (LPNMR97), NUMBER 1265 IN LNCS
, 1997
"... The research on systems of logic programming with modules has followed two mainstreams, programminginthelarge, where compositional operators are provided for combining separate and independent modules, and programminginthesmall, which aims at enhancing logic programming with new logical co ..."
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Cited by 40 (14 self)
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The research on systems of logic programming with modules has followed two mainstreams, programminginthelarge, where compositional operators are provided for combining separate and independent modules, and programminginthesmall, which aims at enhancing logic programming with new logical connectives. In this paper, we present
Classification Theory for Abstract Elementary Classes
 In Logic and Algebra, Yi Zhang editor, Contemporary Mathematics 302, AMS,(2002), 165–203
, 2002
"... In this paper some of the basics of classification theory for abstract elementary classes are discussed. Instead of working with types which are sets of formulas (in the firstorder case) we deal instead with Galois types which are essentially orbits of automorphism groups acting on the structure. S ..."
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Cited by 38 (7 self)
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In this paper some of the basics of classification theory for abstract elementary classes are discussed. Instead of working with types which are sets of formulas (in the firstorder case) we deal instead with Galois types which are essentially orbits of automorphism groups acting on the structure. Some of the most basic results in classification theory for non elementary classes are presented. The motivating point of view is Shelah's categoricity conjecture for L# 1 ,# . While only very basic theorems are proved, an effort is made to present number of different technologies: Flavors of weak diamond, models of weak set theories, and commutative diagrams. We focus in issues involving existence of Galois types, extensions of types and Galoisstability.
The Semantics of Determiners
 The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory
, 1996
"... The study of generalized quantifiers over the past 15 years has enriched enormously our understanding of natural language determiners (Dets). It has yielded answers to questions raised independently within generative grammar and it has provided us with new semantic generalizations, ones that were ba ..."
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Cited by 36 (1 self)
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The study of generalized quantifiers over the past 15 years has enriched enormously our understanding of natural language determiners (Dets). It has yielded answers to questions raised independently within generative grammar and it has provided us with new semantic generalizations, ones that were basically unformulable without the conceptual and technica apparatus of generalized quantifier theory. Here we overview results of both these types. historical note It was Montague (1969) who first interpreted natural language NPs as generalized quantifiers (though this term was not used by him). But it was only in the early 1980's with the publication of B&C (Barwise and Cooper, 1981) that the study of natural language Dets took on a life of its own. Also from this period are early versions of K&S (Keenan and Stavi, 1986) and Higginbotham and May (1981). The former fed into subsequent formal studies such as van Benthem (1984, 1986) and Westerstähl (1985). The latter focussed on specific linguistic applications of binary quantifiers, a topic initiated in Altham and Tennant (1974), drawing on the mathematical work of Mostowski (1957), and pursued later in a more general linguistic setting in van Benthem (1989) and Keenan (1987b, 1992). Another precursor to the mathematical study o generalized quantifiers is Lindstr_m (1969) who provides the type notation used to classif
On Winning Strategies With Unary Quantifiers
 J. Logic and Computation
, 1996
"... A combinatorial argument for two finite structures to agree on all sentences with bounded quantifier rank in firstorder logic with any set of unary generalized quantifiers, is given. It is known that connectivity of finite structures is neither in monadic \Sigma 1 1 nor in L !! (Q u ), where Q ..."
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Cited by 25 (5 self)
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A combinatorial argument for two finite structures to agree on all sentences with bounded quantifier rank in firstorder logic with any set of unary generalized quantifiers, is given. It is known that connectivity of finite structures is neither in monadic \Sigma 1 1 nor in L !! (Q u ), where Q u is the set of all unary generalized quantifiers. Using this combinatorial argument and a combination of secondorder EhrenfeuchtFra iss'e games developed by Ajtai and Fagin, we prove that connectivity of finite structures is not in monadic \Sigma 1 1 with any set of unary quantifiers, even if sentences are allowed to contain builtin relations of moderate degree. The combinatorial argument is also used to show that no class (if it is not in some sense trivial) of finite graphs defined by forbidden minors, is in L !! (Q u ). Especially, the class of planar graphs is not in L !! (Q u ). 1. Introduction The expressive power of firstorder logic L !! is rather limited. This is beca...
Computational complexity of polyadic lifts of generalized quantifiers in natural language
, 2010
"... We study the computational complexity of polyadic quantifiers in natural language. This type of quantification is widely used in formal semantics to model the meaning of multiquantifier sentences. First, we show that the standard constructions that turn simple determiners into complex quantifiers, ..."
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Cited by 20 (11 self)
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We study the computational complexity of polyadic quantifiers in natural language. This type of quantification is widely used in formal semantics to model the meaning of multiquantifier sentences. First, we show that the standard constructions that turn simple determiners into complex quantifiers, namely Boolean operations, iteration, cumulation, and resumption, are tractable. Then, we provide an insight into branching operation yielding intractable natural language multiquantifier expressions. Next, we focus on a linguistic case study. We use computational complexity results to investigate semantic distinctions between quantified reciprocal sentences. We show a computational dichotomy between different readings of reciprocity. Finally, we go more into philosophical speculation on meaning, ambiguity and computational complexity. In particular, we investigate a possibility of revising the Strong Meaning Hypothesis with complexity aspects to better account for meaning shifts in the domain of multiquantifier sentences. The paper not only contributes to the field of formal semantics but also illustrates how the tools of computational complexity theory might be successfully used in linguistics and philosophy with an eye towards cognitive science.
Almost Everywhere Equivalence Of Logics In Finite Model Theory
 BULLETIN OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC
, 1996
"... We introduce a new framework for classifying logics on finite structures and studying their expressive power. This framework is based on the concept of almost everywhere equivalence of logics, that is to say, two logics having the same expressive power on a class of asymptotic measure 1. More pr ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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We introduce a new framework for classifying logics on finite structures and studying their expressive power. This framework is based on the concept of almost everywhere equivalence of logics, that is to say, two logics having the same expressive power on a class of asymptotic measure 1. More precisely, if L, L 0 are two logics and # is an asymptotic measure on finite structures, then L j a.e. L 0 (#) means that there is a class C of finite structures with #(C ) = 1 and such that L and L 0 define the same queries on C. We carry out a systematic investigation of j a.e. with respect to the uniform measure and analyze the j a.e. equivalence classes of several logics that have been studied extensively in finite model theory. Moreover, we explore connections with descriptive complexity theory and examine the status of certain classical results of model theory in the context of this new framework.
Incorporating Generalized Quantifiers into Description Logic to Improve Source Selection

, 2001
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The Hierarchy Theorem for Generalized Quantifiers
, 1999
"... The concept of a generalized quantifier of a given similarity type was defined in [Lin66]. Our main result says that on finite structures different similarity types give rise to different classes of generalized quantifiers. More exactly, for every similarity type t there is a generalized quantif ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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The concept of a generalized quantifier of a given similarity type was defined in [Lin66]. Our main result says that on finite structures different similarity types give rise to different classes of generalized quantifiers. More exactly, for every similarity type t there is a generalized quantifier of type t which is not definable in the extension of first order logic by all generalized quantifiers of type smaller than t. This was proved for unary similarity types by Per Lindstrom [Wes] with a counting argument. We extend his method to arbitrary similarity types. 1 Introduction According to Lindstrom [Lin66], generalized quantifiers are simply classes of structures of a fixed similarity type such that the class is closed under isomorphisms. We identify similarity types with finite sequences of positive integers. A structure A of (similarity) type t = (t 1 ; : : : ; t u ) consists of a finite Key words: generalized quantifier, finite model theory, abstract model theory, y Par...
Commodious Axiomatization of Quantifiers in MultipleValued Logic
, 1997
"... . We provide tools for a concise axiomatization of a broad class of quantifiers in manyvalued logic, socalled distribution quantifiers. Although sound and complete axiomatizations for such quantifiers exist, their size renders them virtually useless for practical purposes. We show that for quantif ..."
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. We provide tools for a concise axiomatization of a broad class of quantifiers in manyvalued logic, socalled distribution quantifiers. Although sound and complete axiomatizations for such quantifiers exist, their size renders them virtually useless for practical purposes. We show that for quantifiers based on finite distributive lattices compact axiomatizations can be obtained schematically. This is achieved by providing a link between skolemized signed formulas and filters/ideals in Boolean set lattices. Then lattice theoretic tools such as Birkhoff's representation theorem for finite distributive lattices are used to derive tableaustyle axiomatizations of distribution quantifiers. Introduction The aim of this paper 1 is to provide concise axiomatizations of certain quantifiers in manyvalued logic which were introduced by Mostowski (1961) and baptized distribution quantifiers by Carnielli (1987). The task of axiomatizing such quantifiers has been solved satisfactorily in theor...