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23
Structural Operational Semantics
 Handbook of Process Algebra
, 1999
"... Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) provides a framework to give an operational semantics to programming and specification languages, which, because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, has found considerable application in the theory of concurrent processes. Even though SOS is widely use ..."
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Cited by 121 (18 self)
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Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) provides a framework to give an operational semantics to programming and specification languages, which, because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, has found considerable application in the theory of concurrent processes. Even though SOS is widely used in programming language semantics at large, some of its most interesting theoretical developments have taken place within concurrency theory. In particular, SOS has been successfully applied as a formal tool to establish results that hold for whole classes of process description languages. The concept of rule format has played a major role in the development of this general theory of process description languages, and several such formats have been proposed in the research literature. This chapter presents an exposition of existing rule formats, and of the rich body of results that are guaranteed to hold for any process description language whose SOS is within one of these formats. As far as possible, the theory is developed for SOS with features like predicates and negative premises.
Turning SOS Rules into Equations
, 1994
"... Many process algebras are defined by structural operational semantics (SOS). Indeed, most such definitions are nicely structured and fit the GSOS format of [15]. We give a procedure for converting any GSOS language definition to a finite complete equational axiom system (possibly with one infinit ..."
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Cited by 87 (20 self)
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Many process algebras are defined by structural operational semantics (SOS). Indeed, most such definitions are nicely structured and fit the GSOS format of [15]. We give a procedure for converting any GSOS language definition to a finite complete equational axiom system (possibly with one infinitary induction principle) which precisely characterizes strong bisimulation of processes.
CCS with Hennessy’s merge has no finite equational axiomatization
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2005
"... This paper confirms a conjecture of Bergstra and Klop’s from 1984 by establishing that the process algebra obtained by adding an auxiliary operator proposed by Hennessy in 1981 to the recursion free fragment of Milner’s Calculus of Communicationg Systems is not finitely based modulo bisimulation equ ..."
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Cited by 19 (16 self)
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This paper confirms a conjecture of Bergstra and Klop’s from 1984 by establishing that the process algebra obtained by adding an auxiliary operator proposed by Hennessy in 1981 to the recursion free fragment of Milner’s Calculus of Communicationg Systems is not finitely based modulo bisimulation equivalence. Thus Hennessy’s merge cannot replace the left merge and communication merge operators proposed by Bergstra and Klop, at least if a finite axiomatization of parallel composition is desired.
SOS formats and metatheory: 20 years after
, 2007
"... In 1981 Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) was introduced as a systematic way to define operational semantics of programming languages by a set of rules of a certain shape [G.D. Plotkin, A structural approach to operational semantics, Technical ..."
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Cited by 10 (5 self)
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In 1981 Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) was introduced as a systematic way to define operational semantics of programming languages by a set of rules of a certain shape [G.D. Plotkin, A structural approach to operational semantics, Technical
Finite axiom systems for testing preorder and De Simone Process Languages
, 2000
"... We prove that testing preorder of De Nicola and Hennessy is preserved by all operators of De Simone process languages. Building upon this result we propose an algorithm for generating axiomatisations of testing preorder for arbitrary De Simone process languages. The axiom systems produced by our alg ..."
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Cited by 8 (2 self)
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We prove that testing preorder of De Nicola and Hennessy is preserved by all operators of De Simone process languages. Building upon this result we propose an algorithm for generating axiomatisations of testing preorder for arbitrary De Simone process languages. The axiom systems produced by our algorithm are finite and complete for processes with nite behaviour. In order to achieve completeness for a subclass of processes with infiite behaviour we use one infinitary induction rule. The usefulness of our results is illustrated in specification and verification of small concurrent systems, where suspension, resumption and alternation of execution of component systems occur. We argue that better speci cations can be written in customised De Simone process languages, which contain both the standard operators as well as new De Simone operators that are specifically tailored for the task in hand. Moreover, the automatically generated axiom systems for such specification languages make the verification more straightforward.
Compositional Semantics and Behavioral Equivalences for P Systems
, 2008
"... The aim of the paper is to give a compositional semantics in the style of the Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) and to study behavioral equivalence notions for P Systems. Firstly, we consider P Systems with maximal parallelism and without priorities. We define a process algebra, called P Algebr ..."
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Cited by 7 (7 self)
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The aim of the paper is to give a compositional semantics in the style of the Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) and to study behavioral equivalence notions for P Systems. Firstly, we consider P Systems with maximal parallelism and without priorities. We define a process algebra, called P Algebra, whose terms model membranes, we equip the algebra with a Labeled Transition System (LTS) obtained through SOS transition rules, and we study how some equivalence notions defined over the LTS model apply in our case. Then, we consider P Systems with priorities and extend the introduced framework to deal with them. We prove that our compositional semantics reflects correctly maximal parallelism and priorities.
Formats of Ordered SOS Rules with Silent Actions
 Proceedings 7th Conference on Theory and Practice of Software Development (TAPSOFT'97), Lille, LNCS 1214
, 1997
"... We present a general and uniform method for defining structural operational semantics (SOS) of process algebra operators by traditional Plotkinstyle rules equipped with an ordering, the new feature which states the order of application of rules when deriving transitions of process terms. Our method ..."
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Cited by 7 (3 self)
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We present a general and uniform method for defining structural operational semantics (SOS) of process algebra operators by traditional Plotkinstyle rules equipped with an ordering, the new feature which states the order of application of rules when deriving transitions of process terms. Our method allows to represent negative premises and copying in the presence of silent actions. We identify a number of general formats of unordered and ordered rules with silent actions and show that divergence sensitive branching and weak bisimulation relations are preserved by all operators in the relevant formats. A comparison with the existing formats for branching and weak bisimulations shows that our formats are more general.
A Hierarchy of SOS Rule Formats
, 2005
"... In 1981 Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) was introduced as a systematic way to define operational semantics of programming languages by a set of rules of a certain shape [62]. Subsequently, the format of SOS rules became the object of study. Using socalled Transition System Specifications (TS ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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In 1981 Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) was introduced as a systematic way to define operational semantics of programming languages by a set of rules of a certain shape [62]. Subsequently, the format of SOS rules became the object of study. Using socalled Transition System Specifications (TSS’s) several authors syntactically restricted the format of rules and showed several useful properties about the semantics induced by any TSS adhering to the format. This has resulted in a line of research proposing several syntactical rule formats and associated metatheorems. Properties that are guaranteed by such rule formats range from welldefinedness of the operational semantics and compositionality of behavioral equivalences to security and probabilityrelated issues. In this paper, we provide an initial hierarchy of SOS rules formats and metatheorems formulated around them.
A syntactic commutativity format for SOS
 Information Processing Letters
, 2005
"... Considering operators defined using Structural Operational Semantics (SOS), commutativity axioms are intuitive properties that hold for many of them. Proving this intuition is usually a laborious task, requiring several pages of boring and standard proof. To save this effort, we propose a syntactic ..."
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Cited by 5 (4 self)
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Considering operators defined using Structural Operational Semantics (SOS), commutativity axioms are intuitive properties that hold for many of them. Proving this intuition is usually a laborious task, requiring several pages of boring and standard proof. To save this effort, we propose a syntactic SOS format which guarantees commutativity for a set of composition operators.
Equivalence semantics for concurrency: comparison and application
, 1998
"... Since the development of CCS and other process algebras, many extensions to these process algebras have been proposed to model different aspects of concurrent computation. It is important both theoretically and practically to understand the relationships between these process algebras and between ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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Since the development of CCS and other process algebras, many extensions to these process algebras have been proposed to model different aspects of concurrent computation. It is important both theoretically and practically to understand the relationships between these process algebras and between the semantic equivalences that are defined for them. In this thesis, I investigate the comparison of semantic equivalences based on bisimulation which are defined for process algebras whose behaviours are described by structured operational semantics, and expressed as labelled transition systems. I first consider a hierarchy of bisimulations for extensions to CCS, using both existing and new results to describe the relationships between their equivalences with respect to pure CCS terms. I then consider a more general approach to comparison by investigating labelled transition systems with structured labels. I define bisimulation homomorphisms between labelled transition systems with different labels, and show how these can be used to compare equivalences. Next, I work in the metatheory of process algebras and consider a new format that is an extension of the tyft/tyxt format for transition system specifications. This format treats labels syntactically instead of schematically, and hence I use a definition of bisimulation which requires equivalence between labels instead of exact matching. I show that standard results such as congruence and conservative extension hold for the new format. I then investigate how comparison of equivalences can be approached through the notion of extension to transition system specifications. This leads to the main results of this study which show how in a very general fashion the bisimulations defined for two different process algebras can be compared over a subset of terms of the process algebras. I also consider what implications the conditions which are required to obtain these results have for modelling process algebras, and show that these conditions do not impose significant limitations. Finally, I show how these results can be applied to existing process algebras. I model a number of process algebras with the extended format and derive new results from the metatheory developed. ii