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134
Towards 3Query Locally Decodable Codes of Subexponential Length
, 2008
"... A qquery Locally Decodable Code (LDC) encodes an nbit message x as an Nbit codeword C(x), such that one can probabilistically recover any bit xi of the message by querying only q bits of the codeword C(x), even after some constant fraction of codeword bits has been corrupted. We give new const ..."
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Cited by 72 (6 self)
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A qquery Locally Decodable Code (LDC) encodes an nbit message x as an Nbit codeword C(x), such that one can probabilistically recover any bit xi of the message by querying only q bits of the codeword C(x), even after some constant fraction of codeword bits has been corrupted. We give new constructions of three query LDCs of vastly shorter length than that of previous constructions. Specifically, given any Mersenne prime p = 2t −1, we design three query LDCs of length N = exp(O(n1/t)), for every n. Based on the largest known Mersenne prime, this translates to a length of less than exp(O(n10−7)), compared to exp(O(n1/2)) in the previous constructions. It has often been conjectured that there are infinitely many Mersenne primes. Under this conjecture, our constructions yield three query locally decodable codes of length N = exp(nO ( 1log log n)) for infinitely many n. We also obtain analogous improvements for Private Information Retrieval (PIR) schemes. We give 3server PIR schemes with communication complexity of O(n10−7) to access an nbit database, compared to the previous best scheme with complexity O(n1/5.25). Assuming again that there are infinitely many Mersenne primes, we get 3server PIR schemes of communication complexity n O ( 1log log n) for infinitely many n. Previous families of LDCs and PIR schemes were based on the properties of lowdegree multivariate polynomials over finite fields. Our constructions are completely different and are obtained by constructing a large number of vectors in a small dimensional vector space whose inner products are restricted to lie in an algebraically nice set.
Quantum computing, postselection, and probabilistic polynomialtime
, 2004
"... I study the class of problems efficiently solvable by a quantum computer, given the ability to “postselect” on the outcomes of measurements. I prove that this class coincides with a classical complexity class called PP, or Probabilistic PolynomialTime. Using this result, I show that several simple ..."
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Cited by 69 (14 self)
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I study the class of problems efficiently solvable by a quantum computer, given the ability to “postselect” on the outcomes of measurements. I prove that this class coincides with a classical complexity class called PP, or Probabilistic PolynomialTime. Using this result, I show that several simple changes to the axioms of quantum mechanics would let us solve PPcomplete problems efficiently. The result also implies, as an easy corollary, a celebrated theorem of Beigel, Reingold, and Spielman that PP is closed under intersection, as well as a generalization of that theorem due to Fortnow and Reingold. This illustrates that quantum computing can yield new and simpler proofs of major results about classical computation.
Some Applications of Coding Theory in Computational Complexity
, 2004
"... Errorcorrecting codes and related combinatorial constructs play an important role in several recent (and old) results in computational complexity theory. In this paper we survey results on locallytestable and locallydecodable errorcorrecting codes, and their applications to complexity theory ..."
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Cited by 65 (2 self)
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Errorcorrecting codes and related combinatorial constructs play an important role in several recent (and old) results in computational complexity theory. In this paper we survey results on locallytestable and locallydecodable errorcorrecting codes, and their applications to complexity theory and to cryptography.
3Query Locally Decodable Codes of Subexponential Length
, 2008
"... Locally Decodable Codes (LDC) allow one to decode any particular symbol of the input message by making a constant number of queries to a codeword, even if a constant fraction of the codeword is damaged. In a recent work [Yek08] Yekhanin constructs a log n log log n 3query LDC with subexponential l ..."
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Cited by 56 (2 self)
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Locally Decodable Codes (LDC) allow one to decode any particular symbol of the input message by making a constant number of queries to a codeword, even if a constant fraction of the codeword is damaged. In a recent work [Yek08] Yekhanin constructs a log n log log n 3query LDC with subexponential length of size exp(exp(O ())). However, this construction requires a conjecture that there are infinitely many Mersenne primes. In this paper we give the first unconditional constant query LDC construction with subexponantial codeword length. In addition our construction reduces codeword length. We give construction of 3query LDC with codeword length exp(exp(O ( √ log n log log n))). Our construction also could be extended to higher number of queries. We give a 2rquery LDC with length of exp(exp(O ( r √ log n(log log n) r−1))). 1
Two Query PCP with SubConstant Error
, 2008
"... We show that the N PComplete language 3SAT has a PCP verifier that makes two queries to a proof of almostlinear size and achieves subconstant probability of error o(1). The verifier performs only projection tests, meaning that the answer to the first query determines at most one accepting answer ..."
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Cited by 51 (5 self)
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We show that the N PComplete language 3SAT has a PCP verifier that makes two queries to a proof of almostlinear size and achieves subconstant probability of error o(1). The verifier performs only projection tests, meaning that the answer to the first query determines at most one accepting answer to the second query. Previously, by the parallel repetition theorem, there were PCP Theorems with twoquery projection tests, but only (arbitrarily small) constant error and polynomial size [29]. There were also PCP Theorems with subconstant error and almostlinear size, but a constant number of queries that is larger than 2 [26]. As a corollary, we obtain a host of new results. In particular, our theorem improves many of the hardness of approximation results that are proved using the parallel repetition theorem. A partial list includes the following: 1. 3SAT cannot be efficiently approximated to within a factor of 7 8 + o(1), unless P = N P. This holds even under almostlinear reductions. Previously, the best known N Phardness
Linear vs. Semidefinite Extended Formulations: Exponential Separation and Strong Lower Bounds
, 2012
"... We solve a 20year old problem posed by Yannakakis and prove that there exists no polynomialsize linear program (LP) whose associated polytope projects to the traveling salesman polytope, even if the LP is not required to be symmetric. Moreover, we prove that this holds also for the cut polytope an ..."
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Cited by 51 (11 self)
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We solve a 20year old problem posed by Yannakakis and prove that there exists no polynomialsize linear program (LP) whose associated polytope projects to the traveling salesman polytope, even if the LP is not required to be symmetric. Moreover, we prove that this holds also for the cut polytope and the stable set polytope. These results were discovered through a new connection that we make between oneway quantum communication protocols and semidefinite programming reformulations of LPs.
Extractors: Optimal up to Constant Factors
 STOC'03
, 2003
"... This paper provides the first explicit construction of extractors which are simultaneously optimal up to constant factors in both seed length and output length. More precisely, for every n, k, our extractor uses a random seed of length O(log n) to transform any random source on n bits with (min)ent ..."
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Cited by 49 (12 self)
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This paper provides the first explicit construction of extractors which are simultaneously optimal up to constant factors in both seed length and output length. More precisely, for every n, k, our extractor uses a random seed of length O(log n) to transform any random source on n bits with (min)entropy k, into a distribution on (1 − α)k bits that is ɛclose to uniform. Here α and ɛ can be taken to be any positive constants. (In fact, ɛ can be almost polynomially small). Our improvements are obtained via three new techniques, each of which may be of independent interest. The first is a general construction of mergers [22] from locally decodable errorcorrecting codes. The second introduces new condensers that have constant seed length (and retain a constant fraction of the minentropy in the random source). The third is a way to augment the “winwin repeated condensing” paradigm of [17] with error reduction techniques like [15] so that the our constant seedlength condensers can be used without error accumulation.
Exponential separation of quantum and classical oneway communication complexity
 SIAM J. Comput
"... Abstract. We give the first exponential separation between quantum and boundederror randomized oneway communication complexity. Specifically, we define the Hidden Matching Problem HMn: Alice gets as input a string x ∈ {0, 1} n and Bob gets a perfect matching M on the n coordinates. Bob’s goal is t ..."
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Cited by 48 (4 self)
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Abstract. We give the first exponential separation between quantum and boundederror randomized oneway communication complexity. Specifically, we define the Hidden Matching Problem HMn: Alice gets as input a string x ∈ {0, 1} n and Bob gets a perfect matching M on the n coordinates. Bob’s goal is to output a tuple 〈i, j, b 〉 such that the edge (i, j) belongs to the matching M and b = xi ⊕ xj. We prove that the quantum oneway communication complexity of HMn is O(log n), yet any randomized oneway protocol with bounded error must use Ω ( √ n) bits of communication. No asymptotic gap for oneway communication was previously known. Our bounds also hold in the model of Simultaneous Messages (SM) and hence we provide the first exponential separation between quantum SM and randomized SM with public coins. For a Boolean decision version of HMn, we show that the quantum oneway communication complexity remains O(log n) and that the 0error randomized oneway communication complexity is Ω(n). We prove that any randomized linear oneway protocol with bounded error for this problem requires Ω ( 3 √ n log n) bits of communication. Key words. Communication complexity, quantum computation, separation, hidden matching AMS subject classifications. 68P30,68Q15,68Q17,81P68 1. Introduction. The
Locally Decodable Codes with 2 queries and Polynomial Identity Testing for depth 3 circuits
 ELECTRONIC COLLOQUIUM ON COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY, REPORT NO. 44 (2005)
, 2005
"... In this work we study two, seemingly unrelated, notions. Locally Decodable Codes (LDCs) are codes that allow the recovery of each message bit from a constant number of entries of the codeword. Polynomial Identity Testing (PIT) is one of the fundamental problems of algebraic complexity: we are given ..."
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Cited by 47 (14 self)
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In this work we study two, seemingly unrelated, notions. Locally Decodable Codes (LDCs) are codes that allow the recovery of each message bit from a constant number of entries of the codeword. Polynomial Identity Testing (PIT) is one of the fundamental problems of algebraic complexity: we are given a circuit computing a multivariate polynomial and we have to determine whether the polynomial is identically zero. We improve known results on locally decodable codes and on polynomial identity testing and show a relation between the two notions. In particular we obtain the following results: 1. We show that if E: F n ↦ → F m is a linear LDC with 2 queries then m = exp(Ω(n)). Previously this was only known for fields of size << 2 n [GKST01]. 2. We show that from every depth 3 arithmetic circuit (ΣΠΣ circuit), C, with a bounded (constant) top fanin that computes the zero polynomial, one can construct a locally decodeable code. More formally: Assume that C is minimal (no subset of the multiplication gates sums to zero) and simple (no linear function appears in all the multiplication gates). Denote by d the degree of the polynomial computed by C and by r the rank of the linear
A survey on private information retrieval
 Bulletin of the EATCS
, 2004
"... Alice wants to query a database but she does not want the database to learn what she is querying. She can ask for the entire database. Can she get her query answered with less communication? One model of this problem is Private Information Retrieval, henceforth PIR. We survey results obtained about ..."
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Cited by 44 (1 self)
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Alice wants to query a database but she does not want the database to learn what she is querying. She can ask for the entire database. Can she get her query answered with less communication? One model of this problem is Private Information Retrieval, henceforth PIR. We survey results obtained about the PIR model including partial answers to the following questions. (1) What if there are k noncommunicating copies of the database but they are computationally unbounded? (2) What if there is only one copy of the database and it is computationally bounded? 1