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210
Synchronization and linearity: an algebra for discrete event systems
, 2001
"... The first edition of this book was published in 1992 by Wiley (ISBN 0 471 93609 X). Since this book is now out of print, and to answer the request of several colleagues, the authors have decided to make it available freely on the Web, while retaining the copyright, for the benefit of the scientific ..."
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Cited by 249 (10 self)
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The first edition of this book was published in 1992 by Wiley (ISBN 0 471 93609 X). Since this book is now out of print, and to answer the request of several colleagues, the authors have decided to make it available freely on the Web, while retaining the copyright, for the benefit of the scientific community. Copyright Statement This electronic document is in PDF format. One needs Acrobat Reader (available freely for most platforms from the Adobe web site) to benefit from the full interactive machinery: using the package hyperref by Sebastian Rahtz, the table of contents and all LATEX crossreferences are automatically converted into clickable hyperlinks, bookmarks are generated automatically, etc.. So, do not hesitate to click on references to equation or section numbers, on items of thetableofcontents and of the index, etc.. One may freely use and print this document for one’s own purpose or even distribute it freely, but not commercially, provided it is distributed in its entirety and without modifications, including this preface and copyright statement. Any use of thecontents should be acknowledged according to the standard scientific practice. The
The complexity of finite objects and the development of the concepts of information and randomness by means of the theory of algorithms
 Russian Math. Surveys
, 1970
"... In 1964 Kolmogorov introduced the concept of the complexity of a finite object (for instance, the words in a certain alphabet). He defined complexity as the minimum number of binary signs containing all the information about a given object that are sufficient for its recovery (decoding). This defini ..."
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Cited by 184 (1 self)
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In 1964 Kolmogorov introduced the concept of the complexity of a finite object (for instance, the words in a certain alphabet). He defined complexity as the minimum number of binary signs containing all the information about a given object that are sufficient for its recovery (decoding). This definition depends essentially on the method of decoding. However, by means of the general theory of algorithms, Kolmogorov was able to give an invariant (universal) definition of complexity. Related concepts were investigated by Solotionoff (U.S.A.) and Markov. Using the concept of complexity, Kolmogorov gave definitions of the quantity of information in finite objects and of the concept of a random sequence (which was then defined more precisely by MartinLof). Afterwards, this circle of questions developed rapidly. In particular, an interesting development took place of the ideas of Markov on the application of the concept of complexity to the study of quantitative questions in the theory of algorithms. The present article is a survey of the fundamental results connected with the brief remarks above.
Dimension in Complexity Classes
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2000
"... A theory of resourcebounded dimension is developed using gales, which are natural generalizations of martingales. When the resource bound (a parameter of the theory) is unrestricted, the resulting dimension is precisely the classical Hausdorff dimension (sometimes called "fractal dimension"). Othe ..."
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Cited by 115 (17 self)
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A theory of resourcebounded dimension is developed using gales, which are natural generalizations of martingales. When the resource bound (a parameter of the theory) is unrestricted, the resulting dimension is precisely the classical Hausdorff dimension (sometimes called "fractal dimension"). Other choices of the parameter yield internal dimension theories in E, E 2 , ESPACE, and other complexity classes, and in the class of all decidable problems. In general, if C is such a class, then every set X of languages has a dimension in C, which is a real number dim(X j C) 2 [0; 1]. Along with the elements of this theory, two preliminary applications are presented: 1. For every real number 0 1 2 , the set FREQ( ), consisting of all languages that asymptotically contain at most of all strings, has dimension H()  the binary entropy of  in E and in E 2 . 2. For every real number 0 1, the set SIZE( 2 n n ), consisting of all languages decidable by Boolean circuits of at most 2 n n gates, has dimension in ESPACE.
The Dimensions of Individual Strings and Sequences
 INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION
, 2003
"... A constructive version of Hausdorff dimension is developed using constructive supergales, which are betting strategies that generalize the constructive supermartingales used in the theory of individual random sequences. This constructive dimension is used to assign every individual (infinite, binary ..."
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Cited by 95 (10 self)
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A constructive version of Hausdorff dimension is developed using constructive supergales, which are betting strategies that generalize the constructive supermartingales used in the theory of individual random sequences. This constructive dimension is used to assign every individual (infinite, binary) sequence S a dimension, which is a real number dim(S) in the interval [0, 1]. Sequences that
Kolmogorov Complexity and Hausdorff Dimension
 Inform. and Comput
, 1989
"... this paper we are mainly interested in the first order approximation (i.e. the linear growth) of K(fi=\Delta). We consider the functions ..."
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Cited by 67 (20 self)
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this paper we are mainly interested in the first order approximation (i.e. the linear growth) of K(fi=\Delta). We consider the functions
A Generalized Suffix Tree and Its (Un)Expected Asymptotic Behaviors
 SIAM J. Computing
, 1996
"... Suffix trees find several applications in computer science and telecommunications, most notably in algorithms on strings, data compressions and codes. Despite this, very little is known about their typical behaviors. In a probabilistic framework, we consider a family of suffix trees  further calle ..."
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Cited by 53 (29 self)
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Suffix trees find several applications in computer science and telecommunications, most notably in algorithms on strings, data compressions and codes. Despite this, very little is known about their typical behaviors. In a probabilistic framework, we consider a family of suffix trees  further called bsuffix trees  built from the first n suffixes of a random word. In this family a noncompact suffix tree (i.e., such that every edge is labeled by a single symbol) is represented by b = 1, and a compact suffix tree (i.e., without unary nodes) is asymptotically equivalent to b ! 1 as n ! 1. We study several parameters of bsuffix trees, namely: the depth of a given suffix, the depth of insertion, the height and the shortest feasible path. Some new results concerning typical (i.e., almost sure) behaviors of these parameters are established. These findings are used to obtain several insights into certain algorithms on words, molecular biology and universal data compression schemes. Key Wo...
Positivity Of Entropy Production In Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics.
 J. Stat. Phys
, 1996
"... . We analyze different mechanisms of entropy production in statistical mechanics, and propose formulae for the entropy production rate e(¯) in a state ¯. When ¯ is a steady state describing the long term behavior of a system we show that e(¯) 0, and sometimes we can prove e(¯) ? 0. Key words and p ..."
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Cited by 50 (1 self)
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. We analyze different mechanisms of entropy production in statistical mechanics, and propose formulae for the entropy production rate e(¯) in a state ¯. When ¯ is a steady state describing the long term behavior of a system we show that e(¯) 0, and sometimes we can prove e(¯) ? 0. Key words and phrases: ensemble, entropy production, folding entropy, nonequilibrium stationary state, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, SRB state, thermostat. * IHES (91440 Bures sur Yvette, France), and Math. Dept., Rutgers University (New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA). 0. Introduction. The study of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics leads naturally to the introduction of nonequilibrium states. These are probability measures ¯ on the phase space of the system, suitably chosen and stationary (in principle) under the nonequilibrium time evolution. In the present paper we analyze the entropy production e(¯) for such nonequilibrium states, and show that it is positive (more precisely 0, sometimes one ca...
Asymptotic Properties Of Data Compression And Suffix Trees
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 1993
"... Recently, Wyner and Ziv have proved that the typical length of a repeated subword found within the first n positions of a stationary ergodic sequence is (1=h) log n in probability where h is the entropy of the alphabet. This finding was used to obtain several insights into certain universal data com ..."
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Cited by 40 (11 self)
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Recently, Wyner and Ziv have proved that the typical length of a repeated subword found within the first n positions of a stationary ergodic sequence is (1=h) log n in probability where h is the entropy of the alphabet. This finding was used to obtain several insights into certain universal data compression schemes, most notably the LempelZiv data compression algorithm. Wyner and Ziv have also conjectured that their result can be extended to a stronger almost sure convergence. In this paper, we settle this conjecture in the negative in the so called right domain asymptotic, that is, during a dynamic phase of expanding the data base. We prove  under an additional assumption involving mixing conditions  that the length of a typical repeated subword oscillates almost surely (a.s.) between (1=h 1 ) log n and (1=h 2 ) log n where 0 ! h 2 ! h h 1 ! 1. We also show that the length of the nth block in the LempelZiv parsing algorithm reveals a similar behavior. We relate our findings to...
FiniteState Dimension
, 2001
"... Classical Hausdorff dimension (sometimes called fractal dimension) was recently effectivized using gales (betting strategies that generalize martingales), thereby endowing various complexity classes with dimension structure and also defining the constructive dimensions of individual binary (infinite ..."
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Cited by 40 (16 self)
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Classical Hausdorff dimension (sometimes called fractal dimension) was recently effectivized using gales (betting strategies that generalize martingales), thereby endowing various complexity classes with dimension structure and also defining the constructive dimensions of individual binary (infinite) sequences. In this paper we use gales computed by multiaccount finitestate gamblers to develop the finitestate dimensions of sets of binary sequences and individual binary sequences. The theorem of Eggleston (1949) relating Hausdorff dimension to entropy is shown to hold for finitestate dimension, both in the space of all sequences and in the space of all rational sequences (binary expansions of rational numbers). Every rational sequence has finitestate dimension 0, but every rational number in [0; 1] is the finitestate dimension of a sequence in the lowlevel complexity class AC0 . Our main theorem shows that the finitestate dimension of a sequence is precisely the infimum of all compression ratios achievable on the sequence by informationlossless finitestate compressors.