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**1 - 2**of**2**### History of Constructivism in the 20th Century

"... notions, such as `constructive proof', `arbitrary number-theoretic function ' are rejected. Statements involving quantifiers are finitistically interpreted in terms of quantifier-free statements. Thus an existential statement 9xAx is regarded as a partial communication, to be supplemented by providi ..."

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notions, such as `constructive proof', `arbitrary number-theoretic function ' are rejected. Statements involving quantifiers are finitistically interpreted in terms of quantifier-free statements. Thus an existential statement 9xAx is regarded as a partial communication, to be supplemented by providing an x which satisfies A. Establishing :8xAx finitistically means: providing a particular x such that Ax is false. In this century, T. Skolem 4 was the first to contribute substantially to finitist 4 Thoralf Skolem 1887--1963 History of constructivism in the 20th century 3 mathematics; he showed that a fair part of arithmetic could be developed in a calculus without bound variables, and with induction over quantifier-free expressions only. Introduction of functions by primitive recursion is freely allowed (Skolem 1923). Skolem does not present his results in a formal context, nor does he try to delimit precisely the extent of finitist reasoning. Since the idea of finitist reasoning ...

### On the imaginative constructivist nature of design: a theoretical approach

"... Abstract: Most empirical accounts of design suggest that designing is an activity where objects and representations are progressively constructed. Despite this fact, whether design is a constructive process or not is not a question directly addressed in current design research. By contrast, in other ..."

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Abstract: Most empirical accounts of design suggest that designing is an activity where objects and representations are progressively constructed. Despite this fact, whether design is a constructive process or not is not a question directly addressed in current design research. By contrast, in other fields such as Mathematics or Psychology, the notion of constructivism is seen as a foundational issue. The present paper defends the point of view that forms of constructivism in design need to be identified and integrated as a foundational element in design research as well. In fact, a look at the literature reveals at least two types of constructive processes that are well embedded in design research. First, an interactive constructivism, where a designer engages a conversation with media, that allows changing the course of the activity as a result of this interaction. Second, a social constructivism, where designers need to handle communication and negotiation aspects, that allows integrating individuals ’ expertise into the global design process. A key feature lacking to these well-established paradigms is the explicit consideration of creativity as a central issue of design. To explore how creative and constructivist aspects of design can be taken into account conjointly, the present paper pursues a theoretical approach. We consider the roots of