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11
Unsupervised Learning of the Morphology of a Natural Language
 COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS
, 2001
"... This study reports the results of using minimum description length (MDL) analysis to model unsupervised learning of the morphological segmentation of European languages, using corpora ranging in size from 5,000 words to 500,000 words. We develop a set of heuristics that rapidly develop a probabilist ..."
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Cited by 265 (11 self)
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This study reports the results of using minimum description length (MDL) analysis to model unsupervised learning of the morphological segmentation of European languages, using corpora ranging in size from 5,000 words to 500,000 words. We develop a set of heuristics that rapidly develop a probabilistic morphological grammar, and use MDL as our primary tool to determine whether the modifications proposed by the heuristics will be adopted or not. The resulting grammar matches well the analysis that would be developed by a human morphologist. In the final section, we discuss the relationship of this style of MDL grammatical analysis to the notion of evaluation metric in early generative grammar.
A Game of Prediction with Expert Advice
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1997
"... We consider the following problem. At each point of discrete time the learner must make a prediction; he is given the predictions made by a pool of experts. Each prediction and the outcome, which is disclosed after the learner has made his prediction, determine the incurred loss. It is known that, u ..."
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Cited by 103 (7 self)
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We consider the following problem. At each point of discrete time the learner must make a prediction; he is given the predictions made by a pool of experts. Each prediction and the outcome, which is disclosed after the learner has made his prediction, determine the incurred loss. It is known that, under weak regularity, the learner can ensure that his cumulative loss never exceeds cL+ a ln n, where c and a are some constants, n is the size of the pool, and L is the cumulative loss incurred by the best expert in the pool. We find the set of those pairs (c; a) for which this is true.
A Nonbehavioural, Computational Extension to the Turing Test
 In International Conference on Computational Intelligence & Multimedia Applications (ICCIMA '98
, 1998
"... We also ask the following question: Given two programs H1 and H2 respectively of lengths l1 and l2, l1! l2, if H1 and H2 perform equally well (to date) on a Turing Test, which, if either, should be preferred for the future? We also set a challenge. If humans can presume intelligence in their ability ..."
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Cited by 33 (18 self)
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We also ask the following question: Given two programs H1 and H2 respectively of lengths l1 and l2, l1! l2, if H1 and H2 perform equally well (to date) on a Turing Test, which, if either, should be preferred for the future? We also set a challenge. If humans can presume intelligence in their ability to set the Turing test, then we issue the additional challenge to researchers to get machines to administer the Turing Test.
MML clustering of multistate, Poisson, von Mises circular and Gaussian distributions
 Statistics Computing
, 2000
"... Minimum Message Length (MML) is an invariant Bayesian point estimation technique which is also statistically consistent and efficient. We provide a brief overview of MML inductive inference ..."
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Cited by 32 (10 self)
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Minimum Message Length (MML) is an invariant Bayesian point estimation technique which is also statistically consistent and efficient. We provide a brief overview of MML inductive inference
New Error Bounds for Solomonoff Prediction
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1999
"... Several new relations between universal Solomonoff sequence prediction and informed prediction and general probabilistic prediction schemes will be proved. Among others, they show that the number of errors in Solomonoff prediction is finite for computable prior probability, if finite in the informed ..."
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Cited by 22 (15 self)
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Several new relations between universal Solomonoff sequence prediction and informed prediction and general probabilistic prediction schemes will be proved. Among others, they show that the number of errors in Solomonoff prediction is finite for computable prior probability, if finite in the informed case, where the prior is known. Deterministic variants will also be studied. The most interesting result is that the deterministic variant of Solomonoff prediction is optimal compared to any other probabilistic or deterministic prediction scheme apart from additive square root corrections only. This makes it well suited even for difficult prediction problems, where it does not suffice when the number of errors is minimal to within some factor greater than one. Solomonoff's original bound and the ones presented here complement each other in a useful way.
Circular Clustering Of Protein Dihedral Angles By Minimum Message Length
 In Proceedings of the 1st Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing (PSB1
, 1996
"... this paper is given in [DADH95] and is available from ftp://www.cs.monash.edu.au/www/publications/1995/TR237.ps.Z.) Section 2introduces the MML principle and how it can be used for this circular clustering problem. The remaining sections give the results of the secondary structure groups [KaSa83] th ..."
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Cited by 14 (11 self)
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this paper is given in [DADH95] and is available from ftp://www.cs.monash.edu.au/www/publications/1995/TR237.ps.Z.) Section 2introduces the MML principle and how it can be used for this circular clustering problem. The remaining sections give the results of the secondary structure groups [KaSa83] that resulted from applying Snob to cluster our dihedral angle data.
An evolutionary sonic ecosystem
 Advances in Artificial Life, Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference, ECAL LNCS 2159
, 2001
"... Abstract. This paper describes an Artificial Life system for music composition. An evolving ecology of sonic entities populate a virtual world and compete for limited resources. Part of their genetic representation permits the creatures to make and listen to sounds. Complex musical and sonic relatio ..."
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Cited by 11 (7 self)
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Abstract. This paper describes an Artificial Life system for music composition. An evolving ecology of sonic entities populate a virtual world and compete for limited resources. Part of their genetic representation permits the creatures to make and listen to sounds. Complex musical and sonic relationships can develop as the creatures use sound to aid in their survival and mating prospects. 1
MML mixture modelling of multistate, Poisson, von Mises circular and Gaussian distributions
 In Proc. 6th Int. Workshop on Artif. Intelligence and Statistics
, 1997
"... Minimum Message Length (MML) is an invariant Bayesian point estimation technique which is also consistent and efficient. We provide a brief overview of MML inductive inference (Wallace and Boulton (1968), Wallace and Freeman (1987)), and how it has both an informationtheoretic and a Bayesian interp ..."
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Cited by 8 (5 self)
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Minimum Message Length (MML) is an invariant Bayesian point estimation technique which is also consistent and efficient. We provide a brief overview of MML inductive inference (Wallace and Boulton (1968), Wallace and Freeman (1987)), and how it has both an informationtheoretic and a Bayesian interpretation. We then outline how MML is used for statistical parameter estimation, and how the MML mixture modelling program, Snob (Wallace and Boulton (1968), Wallace (1986), Wallace and Dowe(1994)) uses the message lengths from various parameter estimates to enable it to combine parameter estimation with selection of the number of components. The message length is (to within a constant) the logarithm of the posterior probability of the theory. So, the MML theory can also be regarded as the theory with the highest posterior probability. Snob currently assumes that variables are uncorrelated, and permits multivariate data from Gaussian, discrete multistate, Poisson and von Mises circular dist...
CIRCULAR CLUSTERING BY MINIMUM MESSAGE LENGTH OF PROTEIN DIHEDRAL ANGLES
, 1995
"... Early work on proteins identified the existence of helices and extended sheets in protein secondary structures, a highlevel classification which remains popular today. Using the Snob program for informationtheoretic Minimum Message Length (MML) intrinsic classification, we are able to take the pro ..."
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Cited by 4 (4 self)
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Early work on proteins identified the existence of helices and extended sheets in protein secondary structures, a highlevel classification which remains popular today. Using the Snob program for informationtheoretic Minimum Message Length (MML) intrinsic classification, we are able to take the protein dihedral angles as determined by Xray crystallography, and cluster sets of dihedral angles into groups. Previous work by Hunter and States had applied a similar Bayesian classification method, AutoClass, to protein data with site position represented by 3 Cartesian coordinates for each of the αCarbon, βCarbon and Nitrogen, totalling 9 coordinates. By using the von Mises circular distribution in the Snob program rather than the Normal distribution in the Hunter and States model, we are instead able to represent local site properties by the two dihedral angles, φ and ψ. Since each site can be modelled as having 2 degrees of freedom, this orientationinvariant dihedral angle representation of the data is more compact than that of nine highlycorrelated Cartesian coordinates. Using the informationtheoretic message length concepts discussed in the paper, such a more concise model is more likely to represent the underlying generating process from which the data comes. We report on the results of our classification, plotting the classes in (φ,ψ)space and introducing a symmetric informationtheoretic distance measure to build a minimum spanning tree between the classes. We also give a transition matrix between the classes and note the existence of three classes in the region φ ≈−1. 09 rad and ψ ≈−0. 75 rad which are close on the spanning tree and have high intertransition probabilities. These properties give rise to a tight, abundant, selfperpetuating, αhelical structure.
Randomness
, 1995
"... This is a draft of the chapter "Randomness" in 20th Century Mathematics prepared for the `Matematica, Logica, Informatica' Volume 12 of the Storia del XX Secolo, to be published by the Instituto della Enciclopedia Italiana. Excerpts of this draft appeared earlier in P.M.B. Vitányi, "Randomness". In ..."
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This is a draft of the chapter "Randomness" in 20th Century Mathematics prepared for the `Matematica, Logica, Informatica' Volume 12 of the Storia del XX Secolo, to be published by the Instituto della Enciclopedia Italiana. Excerpts of this draft appeared earlier in P.M.B. Vitányi, "Randomness". In A. Schrijver, N. Temme, and K.R. Apt, Eds., From Universal morphisms to megabytes: a Baayen space Odyssey, pages 627642 CWI, Amsterdam, 1994. We present in a single essay a combination and completion of the several aspects of the problem of randomness of individual objects which of necessity occur scattered in our text [11].