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What's so special about Kruskal's Theorem AND THE ORDINAL Γ0? A SURVEY OF SOME RESULTS IN PROOF THEORY
 ANNALS OF PURE AND APPLIED LOGIC, 53 (1991), 199260
, 1991
"... This paper consists primarily of a survey of results of Harvey Friedman about some proof theoretic aspects of various forms of Kruskal’s tree theorem, and in particular the connection with the ordinal Γ0. We also include a fairly extensive treatment of normal functions on the countable ordinals, an ..."
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This paper consists primarily of a survey of results of Harvey Friedman about some proof theoretic aspects of various forms of Kruskal’s tree theorem, and in particular the connection with the ordinal Γ0. We also include a fairly extensive treatment of normal functions on the countable ordinals, and we give a glimpse of Veblen hierarchies, some subsystems of secondorder logic, slowgrowing and fastgrowing hierarchies including Girard’s result, and Goodstein sequences. The central theme of this paper is a powerful theorem due to Kruskal, the “tree theorem”, as well as a “finite miniaturization ” of Kruskal’s theorem due to Harvey Friedman. These versions of Kruskal’s theorem are remarkable from a prooftheoretic point of view because they are not provable in relatively strong logical systems. They are examples of socalled “natural independence phenomena”, which are considered by most logicians as more natural than the metamathematical incompleteness results first discovered by Gödel. Kruskal’s tree theorem also plays a fundamental role in computer science, because it is one of the main tools for showing that certain orderings on trees are well founded. These orderings play a crucial role in proving the termination of systems of rewrite rules and the correctness of KnuthBendix completion procedures. There is also a close connection between a certain infinite countable ordinal called Γ0 and Kruskal’s theorem. Previous definitions of the function involved in this connection are known to be incorrect, in that, the function is not monotonic. We offer a repaired definition of this function, and explore briefly the consequences of its existence.
The Power of Vacillation in Language Learning
, 1992
"... Some extensions are considered of Gold's influential model of language learning by machine from positive data. Studied are criteria of successful learning featuring convergence in the limit to vacillation between several alternative correct grammars. The main theorem of this paper is that there ..."
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Some extensions are considered of Gold's influential model of language learning by machine from positive data. Studied are criteria of successful learning featuring convergence in the limit to vacillation between several alternative correct grammars. The main theorem of this paper is that there are classes of languages that can be learned if convergence in the limit to up to (n+1) exactly correct grammars is allowed but which cannot be learned if convergence in the limit is to no more than n grammars, where the no more than n grammars can each make finitely many mistakes. This contrasts sharply with results of Barzdin and Podnieks and, later, Case and Smith, for learnability from both positive and negative data. A subset principle from a 1980 paper of Angluin is extended to the vacillatory and other criteria of this paper. This principle, provides a necessary condition for circumventing overgeneralization in learning from positive data. It is applied to prove another theorem to the eff...
Prooftheoretic investigations on Kruskal's theorem
 Ann. Pure Appl. Logic
, 1993
"... In this paper we calibrate the exact prooftheoretic strength of Kruskal's theorem, thereby giving, in some sense, the most elementary proof of Kruskal's theorem. Furthermore, these investigations give rise to ordinal analyses of restricted bar induction. Introduction S.G. Simpson in his ..."
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In this paper we calibrate the exact prooftheoretic strength of Kruskal's theorem, thereby giving, in some sense, the most elementary proof of Kruskal's theorem. Furthermore, these investigations give rise to ordinal analyses of restricted bar induction. Introduction S.G. Simpson in his article [10], "Nonprovability of certain combinatorial properties of finite trees", presents prooftheoretic results, due to H. Friedman, about embeddability properties of finite trees. It is shown there that Kruskal's theorem is not provable in ATR 0 . An exact description of the prooftheoretic strength of Kruskal's theorem is not given. On the assumption that there is a bad infinite sequence of trees, the usual proof of Kruskal's theorem utilizes the existence of a minimal bad sequence of trees, thereby employing some form of \Pi 1 1 comprehension. So the question arises whether a more constructive proof can be given. The need for a more elementary proof of Kruskal's theorem is especially felt ...
Higher Order Logic
 In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming
, 1994
"... Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Definin ..."
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Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Defining data types : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.4 Describing processes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 2.5 Expressing convergence using second order validity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 2.6 Truth definitions: the analytical hierarchy : : : : : : : : 10 2.7 Inductive definitions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13 3 Canonical semantics of higher order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : 15 3.1 Tarskian semantics of second order logic : : : : : : : : : 15 3.2 Function and re
Does Mathematics Need New Axioms?
 American Mathematical Monthly
, 1999
"... this article I will be looking at the leading question from the point of view of the logician, and for a substantial part of that, from the perspective of one supremely important logician: Kurt Godel. From the time of his stunning incompleteness results in 1931 to the end of his life, Godel called f ..."
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this article I will be looking at the leading question from the point of view of the logician, and for a substantial part of that, from the perspective of one supremely important logician: Kurt Godel. From the time of his stunning incompleteness results in 1931 to the end of his life, Godel called for the pursuit of new axioms to settle undecided arithmetical problems. And from 1947 on, with the publication of his unusual article, "What is Cantor's continuum problem?" [11], he called in addition for the pursuit of new axioms to settle Cantor's famous conjecture about the cardinal number of the continuum. In both cases, he pointed primarily to schemes of higher infinity in set theory as the direction in which to seek these new principles. Logicians have learned a great deal in recent years that is relevant to Godel's program, but there is considerable disagreement about what conclusions to draw from their results. I'm far from unbiased in this respect, and you'll see how I come out on these matters by the end of this essay, but I will try to give you a fair presentation of other positions along the way so you can decide for yourself which you favor.
An intuitionistic proof of Kruskal’s theorem
 Archive for Mathematical Logic
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An application of graphical enumeration to PA
 Journal of Symbolic Logic
, 2003
"... For α less than ε0 let Nα be the number of occurrences of ω in the Cantor normal form of α. Further let n  denote the binary length of a natural number n, let nh denote the htimes iterated binary length of n and let inv(n) be the least h such that nh ≤ 2. We show that for any natural number h ..."
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For α less than ε0 let Nα be the number of occurrences of ω in the Cantor normal form of α. Further let n  denote the binary length of a natural number n, let nh denote the htimes iterated binary length of n and let inv(n) be the least h such that nh ≤ 2. We show that for any natural number h first order Peano arithmetic, PA, does not prove the following sentence: For all K there exists an M which bounds the lengths n of all strictly descending sequences 〈α0,..., αn 〉 of ordinals less than ε0 which satisfy the condition that the Norm Nαi of the ith term αi is bounded by K + i  · ih. As a supplement to this (refined Friedman style) independence result we further show that e.g. primitive recursive arithmetic, PRA, proves that for all K there is an M which bounds the length n of any strictly descending sequence 〈α0,..., αn 〉 of ordinals less than ε0 which satisfies the condition that the Norm Nαi of the ith term αi is bounded by K +i· inv(i). The proofs are based on results from proof theory and techniques from asymptotic analysis of Polyastyle enumerations. Using results from Otter and from Matouˇsek and Loebl we obtain similar characterizations for finite bad sequences of finite trees in terms of Otter’s tree constant 2.9557652856.... ∗ Research supported by a HeisenbergFellowship of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. † The main results of this paper were obtained during the authors visit of T. Arai in
On the logical strength of NashWilliams’ theorem on transfinite sequences. In: Logic: from Foundations to Applications; European logic colloquium
, 1996
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Long Finite Sequences
, 1998
"... Let k be a positive integer. There is a longest finite sequence x 1 ,...,x n in k letters in which no consecutive block x i ,...,x 2i is a subsequence of any other consecutive block x j ,...,x 2j . Let n(k) be this longest length. We prove that n(1) = 3, n(2) = 11, and n(3) is incomprehensibly large ..."
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Let k be a positive integer. There is a longest finite sequence x 1 ,...,x n in k letters in which no consecutive block x i ,...,x 2i is a subsequence of any other consecutive block x j ,...,x 2j . Let n(k) be this longest length. We prove that n(1) = 3, n(2) = 11, and n(3) is incomprehensibly large. We give a lower bound for n(3) in terms of the familiar Ackerman hierarchy. We also give asymptotic upper and lower bounds for n(k). We view n(3) as a particularly elemental description of an incomprehensibly large integer. Related problems involving binary sequences (two letters) are also addressed. We also report on some recent computer explorations of R. Dougherty which we use to raise the lower bound for n(3).