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32
Using spin images for efficient object recognition in cluttered 3D scenes
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1999
"... We present a 3D shapebased object recognition system for simultaneous recognition of multiple objects in scenes containing clutter and occlusion. Recognition is based on matching surfaces by matching points using the spinimage representation. The spinimage is a data level shape descriptor that i ..."
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Cited by 406 (9 self)
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We present a 3D shapebased object recognition system for simultaneous recognition of multiple objects in scenes containing clutter and occlusion. Recognition is based on matching surfaces by matching points using the spinimage representation. The spinimage is a data level shape descriptor that is used to match surfaces represented as surface meshes. We present a compression scheme for spinimages that results in efficient multiple object recognition which we verify with results showing the simultaneous recognition of multiple objects from a library of 20 models. Furthermore, we demonstrate the robust performance of recognition in the presence of clutter and occlusion through analysis of recognition trials on 100 scenes. This research was performed at Carnegie Mellon University and was supported by the US Department Surface matching is a technique from 3D computer vision that has many applications in the area of robotics and automation. Through surface matching, an object can be recognized in a scene by comparing a sensed surface to an object surface stored in memory. When the object surface is matched to the scene surface, an association is made between something known (the object) and
A search engine for 3d models
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2003
"... As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people find them. Unfortunately, traditional textbased search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. In this paper, we investigate new shapebased search methods. The key challen ..."
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Cited by 260 (21 self)
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As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people find them. Unfortunately, traditional textbased search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. In this paper, we investigate new shapebased search methods. The key challenges are to develop query methods simple enough for novice users and matching algorithms robust enough to work for arbitrary polygonal models. We present a webbased search engine system that supports queries based on 3D sketches, 2D sketches, 3D
Rotation Invariant Spherical Harmonic Representation of 3D Shape Descriptors
, 2003
"... One of the challenges in 3D shape matching arises from the fact that in many applications, models should be considered to be the same if they differ by a rotation. Consequently, when comparing two models, a similarity metric implicitly provides the measure of similarity at the optimal alignment. E ..."
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Cited by 217 (9 self)
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One of the challenges in 3D shape matching arises from the fact that in many applications, models should be considered to be the same if they differ by a rotation. Consequently, when comparing two models, a similarity metric implicitly provides the measure of similarity at the optimal alignment. Explicitly solving for the optimal alignment is usually impractical. So, two general methods have been proposed for addressing this issue: (1) Every model is represented using rotation invariant descriptors. (2) Every model is described by a rotation dependent descriptor that is aligned into a canonical coordinate system defined by the model. In this paper, we discuss the limitations of canonical alignment and present a new mathematical tool, based on spherical harmonics, for obtaining rotation invariant representations. We describe the properties of this tool and show how it can be applied to a number of existing, orientation dependent, descriptors to improve their matching performance. The advantage of this is twofold: First, it improves the matching performance of many descriptors. Second, it reduces the dimensionality of the descriptor, providing a more compact representation, which in turn makes comparing two models more efficient.
Shape Distributions
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2002
"... this paper, we propose and analyze a method for computing shape signatures for arbitrary (possibly degenerate) 3D polygonal models. The key idea is to represent the signature of an object as a shape distribution sampled from a shape function measuring global geometric properties of an object. The pr ..."
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Cited by 205 (1 self)
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this paper, we propose and analyze a method for computing shape signatures for arbitrary (possibly degenerate) 3D polygonal models. The key idea is to represent the signature of an object as a shape distribution sampled from a shape function measuring global geometric properties of an object. The primary motivation for this approach is to reduce the shape matching problem to the comparison of probability distributions, which is simpler than traditional shape matching methods that require pose registration, feature correspondence, or model fitting
Matching 3D Models with Shape Distributions
"... Measuring the similarity between 3D shapes is a fundamental problem, with applications in computer vision, molecular biology, computer graphics, and a variety of other fields. A challenging aspect of this problem is to find a suitable shape signature that can be constructed and compared quickly, whi ..."
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Cited by 194 (7 self)
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Measuring the similarity between 3D shapes is a fundamental problem, with applications in computer vision, molecular biology, computer graphics, and a variety of other fields. A challenging aspect of this problem is to find a suitable shape signature that can be constructed and compared quickly, while still discriminating between similar and dissimilar shapes. In this paper, we propose and analyze a method for computing shape signatures for arbitrary (possibly degenerate) 3D polygonal models. The key idea is to represent the signature of an object as a shape distribution sampled from a shape function measuring global geometric properties of an object. The primary motivation for this approach is to reduce the shape matching problem to the comparison of probability distributions, which is a simpler problem than the comparison of 3D surfaces by traditional shape matching methods that require pose registration, feature correspondence, or model fitting. We find that the dissimilarities be...
A survey of freeform object representation and recognition techniques
 Computer Vision and Image Understanding
, 2001
"... Advances in computer speed, memory capacity, and hardware graphics acceleration have made the interactive manipulation and visualization of complex, detailed (and therefore large) threedimensional models feasible. These models are either painstakingly designed through an elaborate CAD process or re ..."
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Cited by 161 (1 self)
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Advances in computer speed, memory capacity, and hardware graphics acceleration have made the interactive manipulation and visualization of complex, detailed (and therefore large) threedimensional models feasible. These models are either painstakingly designed through an elaborate CAD process or reverse engineered from sculpted prototypes using modern scanning technologies and integration methods. The availability of detailed data describing the shape of an object offers the computer vision practitioner new ways to recognize and localize freeform objects. This survey reviews recent literature on both the 3D model building process and techniques used to match and identify freeform objects from imagery. c ○ 2001 Academic Press 1.
Simplex Meshes: a General Representation for 3D Shape Reconstruction
, 1994
"... In this report, we develop the concept of simplex mesh as a representation of deformable models. Simplex meshes are simply connected meshes that are topologically dual of triangulations. In a previous work, we have introduced the simplex mesh representation for performing recognition of partially oc ..."
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Cited by 68 (12 self)
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In this report, we develop the concept of simplex mesh as a representation of deformable models. Simplex meshes are simply connected meshes that are topologically dual of triangulations. In a previous work, we have introduced the simplex mesh representation for performing recognition of partially occluded smooth objects. In this paper, we present a physicallybased approach for recovering threedimensional objects, based on the geometry of simplex meshes. Elastic behavior is modeled by local stabilizing functionals, controlling the mean curvature through the simplex angle extracted at each vertex. Those functionals are viewpointinvariant, intrinsic and scalesensitive. They control either the normal orientation or the curvature continuity of the mesh or its closeness to a given reference shape. Unlike
A Reflective Symmetry Descriptor for 3D Models
 ALGORITHMICA
, 2004
"... Computing reflective symmetries of 2D and 3D shapes is a classical problem in computer vision and computational geometry. Most prior work has focused on finding the main axes of symmetry, or determining that none exists. In this paper we introduce a new reflective symmetry descriptor that represent ..."
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Cited by 63 (7 self)
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Computing reflective symmetries of 2D and 3D shapes is a classical problem in computer vision and computational geometry. Most prior work has focused on finding the main axes of symmetry, or determining that none exists. In this paper we introduce a new reflective symmetry descriptor that represents a measure of reflective symmetry for an arbitrary 3D model for all planes through the model’s center of mass (even if they are not planes of symmetry). The main benefits of this new shape descriptor are that it is defined over a canonical parameterization (the sphere) and describes global properties of a 3D shape. We show how to obtain a voxel grid from arbitrary 3D shapes and, using Fourier methods, we present an algorithm that computes the symmetry descriptor in O(N 4 log N) time for an N × N × N voxel grid and computes a multiresolution approximation in O(N 3 log N) time. In our initial experiments, we have found that the symmetry descriptor is insensitive to noise and stable under point sampling. We have also found that it performs well in shape matching tasks, providing a measure of shape similarity that is orthogonal to existing methods.
COSMOS  A Representation Scheme for 3D FreeForm Objects
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1995
"... We address the problem of representing and recognizing 3D freeform objects when (a) the object viewpoint is arbitrary, (b) the objects may vary in shape and complexity, and (c) no restrictive assumptions are made about the types of surfaces on the object. We assume that a range image of a scene is ..."
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Cited by 63 (2 self)
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We address the problem of representing and recognizing 3D freeform objects when (a) the object viewpoint is arbitrary, (b) the objects may vary in shape and complexity, and (c) no restrictive assumptions are made about the types of surfaces on the object. We assume that a range image of a scene is available, containing a view of a rigid 3D object without occlusion. We propose a new and general surface representation scheme for recognizing objects with freeform (sculpted) surfaces. In this scheme, an object is described concisely in terms of maximal surface patches of constant shape index. The maximal patches that represent the object are mapped onto the unit sphere via their orientations, and aggregated via shape spectral functions. Properties such as surface area, curvedness and connectivity which are required to capture local and global information are also built into the representation. The scheme yields a meaningful and rich description useful for object recognition. A novel conce...
Fully automatic registration of 3d point clouds
 IN CVPR ’06: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2006 IEEE COMPUTER SOCIETY CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION AND PATTERN RECOGNITION
, 2006
"... We propose a novel technique for the registration of 3D point clouds which makes very few assumptions: we avoid any manual rough alignment or the use of landmarks, displacement can be arbitrarily large, and the two point sets can have very little overlap. Crude alignment is achieved by estimation of ..."
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Cited by 32 (0 self)
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We propose a novel technique for the registration of 3D point clouds which makes very few assumptions: we avoid any manual rough alignment or the use of landmarks, displacement can be arbitrarily large, and the two point sets can have very little overlap. Crude alignment is achieved by estimation of the 3Drotation from two Extended Gaussian Images even when the data sets inducing them have partial overlap. The technique is based on the correlation of the two EGIs in the Fourier domain and makes use of the spherical and rotational harmonic transforms. For pairs with low overlap which fail a critical verification step, the rotational alignment can be obtained by the alignment of constellation images generated from the EGIs. Rotationally aligned sets are matched by correlation using the Fourier transform of volumetric functions. A fine alignment is acquired in the final step by running Iterative Closest Points with just few iterations.