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52
Meridian: A Lightweight Network Location Service without Virtual Coordinates
 In SIGCOMM
, 2005
"... This paper introduces a lightweight, scalable and accurate framework, called Meridian, for performing node selection based on network location. The framework consists of an overlay network structured around multiresolution rings, query routing with direct measurements, and gossip protocols for diss ..."
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Cited by 139 (7 self)
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This paper introduces a lightweight, scalable and accurate framework, called Meridian, for performing node selection based on network location. The framework consists of an overlay network structured around multiresolution rings, query routing with direct measurements, and gossip protocols for dissemination. We show how this framework can be used to address three commonly encountered problems, namely, closest node discovery, central leader election, and locating nodes that satisfy target latency constraints in largescale distributed systems without having to compute absolute coordinates. We show analytically that the framework is scalable with logarithmic convergence when Internet latencies are modeled as a growthconstrained metric, a lowdimensional Euclidean metric, or a metric of low doubling dimension. Large scale simulations, based on latency measurements from 6.25 million nodepairs as well as an implementation deployed on PlanetLab show that the framework is accurate and effective.
Fast construction of nets in lowdimensional metrics and their applications
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2006
"... We present a near linear time algorithm for constructing hierarchical nets in finite metric spaces with constant doubling dimension. This datastructure is then applied to obtain improved algorithms for the following problems: approximate nearest neighbor search, wellseparated pair decomposition, s ..."
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Cited by 98 (10 self)
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We present a near linear time algorithm for constructing hierarchical nets in finite metric spaces with constant doubling dimension. This datastructure is then applied to obtain improved algorithms for the following problems: approximate nearest neighbor search, wellseparated pair decomposition, spanner construction, compact representation scheme, doubling measure, and computation of the (approximate) Lipschitz constant of a function. In all cases, the running (preprocessing) time is near linear and the space being used is linear. 1
Complex Networks and Decentralized Search Algorithms
 In Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM
, 2006
"... The study of complex networks has emerged over the past several years as a theme spanning many disciplines, ranging from mathematics and computer science to the social and biological sciences. A significant amount of recent work in this area has focused on the development of random graph models that ..."
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Cited by 73 (1 self)
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The study of complex networks has emerged over the past several years as a theme spanning many disciplines, ranging from mathematics and computer science to the social and biological sciences. A significant amount of recent work in this area has focused on the development of random graph models that capture some of the qualitative properties observed in largescale network data; such models have the potential to help us reason, at a general level, about the ways in which realworld networks are organized. We survey one particular line of network research, concerned with smallworld phenomena and decentralized search algorithms, that illustrates this style of analysis. We begin by describing a wellknown experiment that provided the first empirical basis for the "six degrees of separation" phenomenon in social networks; we then discuss some probabilistic network models motivated by this work, illustrating how these models lead to novel algorithmic and graphtheoretic questions, and how they are supported by recent empirical studies of large social networks.
Routing in networks with low doubling dimension
 In 26 th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). IEEE Computer
, 2006
"... This paper studies compact routing schemes for networks with low doubling dimension. Two variants are explored, nameindependent routing and labeled routing. The key results obtained for this model are the following. First, we provide the first nameindependent solution. Specifically, we achieve con ..."
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Cited by 63 (8 self)
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This paper studies compact routing schemes for networks with low doubling dimension. Two variants are explored, nameindependent routing and labeled routing. The key results obtained for this model are the following. First, we provide the first nameindependent solution. Specifically, we achieve constant stretch and polylogarithmic storage. Second, we obtain the first truly scalefree solutions, namely, the network’s aspect ratio is not a factor in the stretch. Scalefree schemes are given for three problem models: nameindependent routing on graphs, labeled routing on metric spaces, and labeled routing on graphs. Third, we prove a lower bound requiring linear storage for stretch < 3 schemes. This has the important ramification of separating for the first time the nameindependent problem model from the labeled model for these networks, since compact stretch1+ε labeled schemes are known to be possible.
Object Location Using Path Separators
, 2006
"... We study a novel separator property called kpath separable. Roughly speaking, a kpath separable graph can be recursively separated into smaller components by sequentially removing k shortest paths. Our main result is that every minor free weighted graph is kpath separable. We then show that kpat ..."
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Cited by 35 (11 self)
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We study a novel separator property called kpath separable. Roughly speaking, a kpath separable graph can be recursively separated into smaller components by sequentially removing k shortest paths. Our main result is that every minor free weighted graph is kpath separable. We then show that kpath separable graphs can be used to solve several object location problems: (1) a smallworldization with an average polylogarithmic number of hops; (2) an (1 + ε)approximate distance labeling scheme with O(log n) space labels; (3) a stretch(1 + ε) compact routing scheme with tables of polylogarithmic space; (4) an (1+ε)approximate distance oracle with O(n log n) space and O(log n) query time. Our results generalizes to much wider classes of weighted graphs, namely to boundeddimension isometric sparable graphs.
Randomized 3D Geographic Routing
"... Abstract—We reconsider the problem of geographic routing in wireless ad hoc networks. We are interested in local, memoryless routing algorithms, i.e. each network node bases its routing decision solely on its local view of the network, nodes do not store any message state, and the message itself can ..."
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Cited by 24 (0 self)
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Abstract—We reconsider the problem of geographic routing in wireless ad hoc networks. We are interested in local, memoryless routing algorithms, i.e. each network node bases its routing decision solely on its local view of the network, nodes do not store any message state, and the message itself can only carry information about O(1) nodes. In geographic routing schemes, each network node is assumed to know the coordinates of itself and all adjacent nodes, and each message carries the coordinates of its target. Whereas many of the aspects of geographic routing have already been solved for 2D networks, little is known about higherdimensional networks. It has been shown only recently that there is in fact no local memoryless routing algorithm for 3D networks that delivers messages deterministically. In this paper, we show that a cubic routing stretch constitutes a lower bound for any local memoryless routing algorithm, and propose and analyze several randomized geographic routing algorithms which work well for 3D network topologies. For unit ball graphs, we present a technique to locally capture the surface of holes in the network, which leads to 3D routing algorithms similar to the greedyfacegreedy approach for 2D networks. I.
Optimalstretch nameindependent compact routing in doubling metrics
 In PODC
, 2006
"... We consider the problem of nameindependent routing in doubling metrics. A doubling metric is a metric space whose doubling dimension is a constant, where the doubling dimension of a metric space is the least value α such that any ball of radius r can be covered by at most 2 α balls of radius r/2. G ..."
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Cited by 19 (2 self)
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We consider the problem of nameindependent routing in doubling metrics. A doubling metric is a metric space whose doubling dimension is a constant, where the doubling dimension of a metric space is the least value α such that any ball of radius r can be covered by at most 2 α balls of radius r/2. Given any δ> 0 and a weighted undirected network G whose shortest path metric d is a doubling metric with doubling dimension α, we present a nameindependent routing scheme for G with (9+δ)stretch, (2+ 1 δ)O(α) (log ∆) 2 (log n)bit routing information at each node, and packet headers of size O(log n), where ∆ is the ratio of the largest to the smallest shortest path distance in G. In addition, we prove that for any ǫ ∈ (0, 8), there is a doubling metric network G with n nodes, doubling dimension α ≤ 6 − log ǫ, and ∆ = O(2 1/ǫ n) such that any nameindependent routing scheme on G with routing information at each node of size o(n (ǫ/60)2)bits has stretch larger than 9 − ǫ. Therefore assuming that ∆ is bounded by a polynomial on n, our algorithm basically achieves optimal stretch for nameindependent routing in doubling metrics with packet header size and routing information at each node both bounded by a polylogarithmic function of n.
Compact Routing for Graphs Excluding a Fixed Minor (Extended Abstract)
, 2005
"... This paper concerns compact routing schemes with arbitrary node names. We present a compact nameindependent routing scheme for unweighted networks with n nodes excluding a fixed minor. For any fixed minor, the scheme, constructible in polynomial time, has constant stretch factor and requires routin ..."
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Cited by 19 (10 self)
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This paper concerns compact routing schemes with arbitrary node names. We present a compact nameindependent routing scheme for unweighted networks with n nodes excluding a fixed minor. For any fixed minor, the scheme, constructible in polynomial time, has constant stretch factor and requires routing tables with polylogarithmic number of bits at each node. For shortestpath labeled routing scheme in planar graphs, we prove an Ω(n ɛ) space lower bound for some constant ɛ>0. This lower bound holds even for bounded degree triangulations, and is optimal for polynomially weighted planar graphs (ɛ =1/2).
Towards small world emergence
 In Proceedings of 18th ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures
, 2006
"... We investigate the problem of optimizing the routing performances of a virtual network by adding extra random links. Our asynchronous and distributed algorithm ensures, by adding a single extra link per node, that the resulting network is a navigable small world, i.e., in which greedy routing, using ..."
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Cited by 18 (3 self)
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We investigate the problem of optimizing the routing performances of a virtual network by adding extra random links. Our asynchronous and distributed algorithm ensures, by adding a single extra link per node, that the resulting network is a navigable small world, i.e., in which greedy routing, using the distance in the original network, computes paths of polylogarithmic length between any pair of nodes with probability 1 − O(1/n). Previously known small world augmentation processes require the global knowledge of the network and centralized computations, which is unrealistic for large decentralized networks. Our algorithm, based on a careful multilayer sampling of the nodes and the construction of a light overlay network, bypasses these limitations. For bounded growth graphs, i.e., graphs where, for any node u and any radius r the number of nodes within distance 2r from u is at most a constant times the number of nodes within distance r, our augmentation process proceeds with high probability in O(log n log D) communication rounds, with O(log n log D) messages of size O(log n) bits sent per node and requiring only O(log n log D) bit space in each node, where n is the number of nodes, and D the diameter. In particular, with the only knowledge of original distances, greedy routing computes,
On spacestretch tradeoffs: upper bounds
 In SPAA
, 2006
"... One of the fundamental tradeoffs in compact routing schemes is between the space used to store the routing table on each node and the stretch factor of the routing scheme – the maximum ratio over all pairs between the cost of the route induced by the scheme and the cost of a minimum cost path betwe ..."
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Cited by 18 (8 self)
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One of the fundamental tradeoffs in compact routing schemes is between the space used to store the routing table on each node and the stretch factor of the routing scheme – the maximum ratio over all pairs between the cost of the route induced by the scheme and the cost of a minimum cost path between the same pair. All previous routing schemes required storage that is dependent on the diameter of the network. We present a new scalefree routing scheme, whose storage and header sizes are independent of the aspect ratio of the network. Our scheme is based on a decomposition into sparse and dense neighborhoods. Given an undirected network with arbitrary weights and n arbitrary node names, for any integer k ≥ 1 we present the first scalefree routing scheme with asymptotically optimal spacestretch tradeoff that does not require edge weights to be polynomially bounded. The scheme uses e O(n 1/k) space routing table at each node, and routes along paths of asymptotically optimal linear stretch O(k).