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Complexity and Expressive Power of Logic Programming
, 1997
"... This paper surveys various complexity results on different forms of logic programming. The main focus is on decidable forms of logic programming, in particular, propositional logic programming and datalog, but we also mention general logic programming with function symbols. Next to classical results ..."
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Cited by 281 (57 self)
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This paper surveys various complexity results on different forms of logic programming. The main focus is on decidable forms of logic programming, in particular, propositional logic programming and datalog, but we also mention general logic programming with function symbols. Next to classical results on plain logic programming (pure Horn clause programs), more recent results on various important extensions of logic programming are surveyed. These include logic programming with different forms of negation, disjunctive logic programming, logic programming with equality, and constraint logic programming. The complexity of the unification problem is also addressed.
Computing With FirstOrder Logic
, 1995
"... We study two important extensions of firstorder logic (FO) with iteration, the fixpoint and while queries. The main result of the paper concerns the open problem of the relationship between fixpoint and while: they are the same iff ptime = pspace. These and other expressibility results are obtaine ..."
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Cited by 53 (13 self)
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We study two important extensions of firstorder logic (FO) with iteration, the fixpoint and while queries. The main result of the paper concerns the open problem of the relationship between fixpoint and while: they are the same iff ptime = pspace. These and other expressibility results are obtained using a powerful normal form for while which shows that each while computation over an unordered domain can be reduced to a while computation over an ordered domain via a fixpoint query. The fixpoint query computes an equivalence relation on tuples which is a congruence with respect to the rest of the computation. The same technique is used to show that equivalence of tuples and structures with respect to FO formulas with bounded number of variables is definable in fixpoint. Generalizing fixpoint and while, we consider more powerful languages which model arbitrary computation interacting with a database using a finite set of FO queries. Such computation is modeled by a relational machine...
Feasible Computation through Model Theory
, 1993
"... The computational complexity of a problem is usually defined in terms of the resources required on some machine model of computation. An alternative view looks at the complexity of describing the problem (seen as a collection of relational structures) in a logic, measuring logical resources such as ..."
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Cited by 36 (7 self)
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The computational complexity of a problem is usually defined in terms of the resources required on some machine model of computation. An alternative view looks at the complexity of describing the problem (seen as a collection of relational structures) in a logic, measuring logical resources such as the number of variables, quantifiers, operators, etc. A close correspondence has been observed between these two, with many natural logics corresponding exactly to independently defined complexity classes. For the complexity classes that are generally identified with feasible computation, such characterizations require the presence of a linear order on the domain of every structure, in which case the class PTIME is characterized by an extension of firstorder logic by means of an inductive operator. No logical characterization of feasible computation is known for unordered structures. We approach this question from two directions. On the one hand, we seek to accurately characterize the expre...
Higher Order Logic
 In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming
, 1994
"... Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Definin ..."
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Cited by 19 (0 self)
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Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Defining data types : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.4 Describing processes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 2.5 Expressing convergence using second order validity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 2.6 Truth definitions: the analytical hierarchy : : : : : : : : 10 2.7 Inductive definitions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13 3 Canonical semantics of higher order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : 15 3.1 Tarskian semantics of second order logic : : : : : : : : : 15 3.2 Function and re
A Query Language for NC
 In Proceedings of 13th ACM Symposium on Principles of Database Systems
, 1994
"... We show that a form of divide and conquer recursion on sets together with the relational algebra expresses exactly the queries over ordered relational databases which are NC computable. At a finer level, we relate k nested uses of recursion exactly to AC k , k 1. We also give corresponding resul ..."
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Cited by 16 (9 self)
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We show that a form of divide and conquer recursion on sets together with the relational algebra expresses exactly the queries over ordered relational databases which are NC computable. At a finer level, we relate k nested uses of recursion exactly to AC k , k 1. We also give corresponding results for complex objects. 1 Introduction NC is the complexity class of functions that are computable in polylogarithmic time with polynomially many processors on a parallel random access machine (PRAM). The query language for NC discussed here is centered around a form of divide and conquer recursion (dcr ) on finite sets which has obvious potential for parallel evaluation and can easily express, for example, transitive closure and parity. Divide and conquer with parameters e; f; u defines the unique function ', notation dcr (e; f; u), taking finite sets as arguments, such that: '(;) def = e '(fyg) def = f(y) '(s 1 [ s 2 ) def = u('(s 1 ); '(s 2 )) when s 1 " s 2 = ; For parity, we t...
DomainIndependent Queries on Databases with External Functions
 in "LNCS 893: Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Database Theory," 177190
, 1995
"... We investigate queries in the presence of external functions with arbitrary inputs and outputs (atomic values, sets, nested sets etc). We propose a new notion of domain independence for queries with external functions which, in contrast to previous work, can also be applied to query languages with f ..."
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Cited by 13 (2 self)
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We investigate queries in the presence of external functions with arbitrary inputs and outputs (atomic values, sets, nested sets etc). We propose a new notion of domain independence for queries with external functions which, in contrast to previous work, can also be applied to query languages with fixpoints or other kinds of iterators. Next, we define two new notions of computable queries with external functions, and prove that they are equivalent, under the assumption that the external functions are total. Thus, our definition of computable queries with external functions is robust. Finally, based on the equivalence result, we give examples of complete query languages with external functions. A byproduct of the equivalence result is the fact that Relational Machines are complete for complex objects: it was known that they are not complete over flat relations. 1 Introduction Database functionalities are important both for practical and for theoretical purposes. E.g. the system O 2 of ...
Queries Are Easier Than You Thought (probably)
, 1992
"... The optimization of a large class of queries is explored, using a powerful normal form recently proven. The queries include the fixpoint and while queries, and an extension of while with arithmetic. The optimization method is evaluated using a probabilistic analysis. In particular, the average compl ..."
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Cited by 11 (5 self)
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The optimization of a large class of queries is explored, using a powerful normal form recently proven. The queries include the fixpoint and while queries, and an extension of while with arithmetic. The optimization method is evaluated using a probabilistic analysis. In particular, the average complexity of fixpoint and while is considered and some surprising results are obtained. They suggest that the worstcase complexity is sometimes overly pessimistic for such queries, whose average complexity is often much more reasonable than the provably rare worst case. Some computational properties of queries are also investigated. A probabilistic notion of boundedness is defined, and it is shown that all programs in the class considered are bounded almost everywhere. An effective way of using this fact is provided. 1 Introduction The complexity of query languages has traditionally been investigated using worstcase bounds. We argue that this approach provides an overly pessimistic picture o...
Equivalence in FiniteVariable Logics Is Complete for Polynomial Time
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 37TH ANNUAL IEEE SYMPOSIUM ON FOUNDATIONS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1996
"... How difficult is it to decide whether two finite structures can be distinguished in a given logic? For first order logic, this question is equivalent to the graph isomorphism problem with its wellknown complexity theoretic difficulties. Somewhat surprisingly, the situation is much clearer when cons ..."
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Cited by 10 (2 self)
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How difficult is it to decide whether two finite structures can be distinguished in a given logic? For first order logic, this question is equivalent to the graph isomorphism problem with its wellknown complexity theoretic difficulties. Somewhat surprisingly, the situation is much clearer when considering the fragments L k of firstorder logic whose formulas contain at most k variables (for some k 1). We show that for each k 2, equivalence in the logic L k is complete for polynomial time. Moreover, we show that the same completeness result holds for the powerful extension C k of L k with counting quantifiers (for every k 2). The kdimensional WeisfeilerLehman algorithm is a combinatorial approach to graph isomorphism that generalizes the naive colorrefinement method (for k 1). Cai, Furer and Immerman [6] proved that two finite graphs are equivalent in the logic C k+1 if, and only if, they can be distinguished by the kdimensional WeisfeilerLehman algorithm. Th...
Finite Variable Logics In Descriptive Complexity Theory
 Bulletin of Symbolic Logic
, 1998
"... this article. ..."
Computing with Infinitary Logic
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1995
"... Most recursive extensions of relational calculus converge around two central classes of queries: fixpoint and while. Infinitary logic (with finitely many variables) is a very powerful extension of these languages which provides an elegant unifying formalism for a wide variety of query languages. ..."
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Cited by 9 (6 self)
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Most recursive extensions of relational calculus converge around two central classes of queries: fixpoint and while. Infinitary logic (with finitely many variables) is a very powerful extension of these languages which provides an elegant unifying formalism for a wide variety of query languages. However, neither the syntax nor the semantics of infinitary logic are effective, and its connection to practical query languages has been largely unexplored. We relate infinitary logic to another powerful extension of fixpoint and while, called relational machine, which highlights the computational style of these languages. Relational machines capture the kind of computation occurring when a query language is embedded in a host programming language, as in C+SQL. The main result of this paper is that relational machines correspond to the natural effective fragment of infinitary logic. Other wellknown query languages are related to infinitary logic using syntactic restrictions formula...