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Automated Synthesis of Analog Electrical Circuits by Means of Genetic Programming
, 1997
"... The design (synthesis) of analog electrical circuits starts with a highlevel statement of the circuit's desired behavior and requires creating a circuit that satisfies the specified design goals. Analog circuit synthesis entails the creation of both the topology and the sizing (numerical values ..."
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Cited by 78 (8 self)
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The design (synthesis) of analog electrical circuits starts with a highlevel statement of the circuit's desired behavior and requires creating a circuit that satisfies the specified design goals. Analog circuit synthesis entails the creation of both the topology and the sizing (numerical values) of all of the circuit's components. The difficulty of the problem of analog circuit synthesis is well known and there is no previously known general automated technique for synthesizing an analog circuit from a highlevel statement of the circuit's desired behavior. This paper presents a single uniform approach using genetic programming for the automatic synthesis of both the topology and sizing of a suite of eight different prototypical analog circuits, including a lowpass filter, a crossover (woofer and tweeter) filter, a source identification circuit, an amplifier, a computational circuit, a timeoptimal controller circuit, a temperaturesensing circuit, and a voltage reference circuit. The problemspecific information required for each of the eight problems is minimal and consists primarily of the number of inputs and outputs of the desired circuit, the types of available components, and a fitness measure that restates the highlevel
A 1.9GHz wideband IF double conversion CMOS receiver for cordless telephone applications
 IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits
, 1997
"... Rapid growth in the portable communications market has pushed designers to seek lowcost, lowpower, highly integrated solutions for the RF transceiver. A number of recent efforts have concentrated on integrating many of the discrete radio receiver components in a lowcost silicon process such as CM ..."
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Cited by 47 (1 self)
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Rapid growth in the portable communications market has pushed designers to seek lowcost, lowpower, highly integrated solutions for the RF transceiver. A number of recent efforts have concentrated on integrating many of the discrete radio receiver components in a lowcost silicon process such as CMOS [1][2]. This paper describes a prototype of a monolithic CMOS receiver that combines RF and baseband functionality by taking the carrier signal at the LNA input and producing a 10bit digital baseband waveform. A WideBand Intermediate Frequency Double Conversion (WBIFDC) architecture is utilized to remove the need for external narrowband IF filters.
Decoding and Equalization with Analog Nonlinear Networks
 EUROPEAN TRANS. COMM
, 1999
"... Using analog, nonlinear and highly parallel networks, we attempt to perform decoding of block and convolutional codes, equalization of certain frequencyselective channels, decoding of multilevel coded modulation and reconstruction of coded PCM signals. This is in contrast to common practice where ..."
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Cited by 24 (5 self)
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Using analog, nonlinear and highly parallel networks, we attempt to perform decoding of block and convolutional codes, equalization of certain frequencyselective channels, decoding of multilevel coded modulation and reconstruction of coded PCM signals. This is in contrast to common practice where these tasks are performed by sequentially operating processors. Our advantage is that we operate fully on soft values for input and output, similar to what is done in `turbo' decoding. However, we do not have explicit iterations because the networks float freely in continuous time. The decoder has almost no latency in time because we are only restricted by the time constants from the parasitic RC values of integrated circuits. Simulation results for several simple examples are shown which, in some cases, achieve the performance of a conventional MAP detector. For more complicated codes we indicate promising solutions with more complex analog networks based on the simple ones. Furthermore,...
A Field Programmable Analog Array for Continuous, Fuzzy, and MultiValued Logic Applications
 Proc. 24th ISMVL
"... In this paper we propose a novel approach to the realization of continuous, fiuzy, and multivalued logic (mvl) circuits. We demonstrate how a generalpurpose field programmable analog array (FPAA), with cells realizing simple arithmetic operations on signals, can be used for this purpose. The FPAA, ..."
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Cited by 13 (4 self)
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In this paper we propose a novel approach to the realization of continuous, fiuzy, and multivalued logic (mvl) circuits. We demonstrate how a generalpurpose field programmable analog array (FPAA), with cells realizing simple arithmetic operations on signals, can be used for this purpose. The FPAA, which is being implemented in a bipolar transistor array technology, operates from f3.3V or f s V power supplies and works in the range of frequencies up to several hundred MHz. 1.
Automated synthesis of computational circuits using genetic programming
 Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE Conference on Evolutionary Computation. Piscataway, NJ
, 1997
"... Abstract: Analog electrical circuits that perform mathematical functions (e.g., cube root, square) are called computational circuits. Computational circuits are of special practical importance when the small number of required mathematical functions does not warrant converting an analog signal into ..."
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Cited by 11 (4 self)
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Abstract: Analog electrical circuits that perform mathematical functions (e.g., cube root, square) are called computational circuits. Computational circuits are of special practical importance when the small number of required mathematical functions does not warrant converting an analog signal into a digital signal, performing the mathematical function in the digital domain, and then converting the result back to the analog domain. The design of computational circuits is difficult even for mundane mathematical functions and often relies on the clever exploitation of some aspect of the underlying device physics of the components. Moreover, implementation of each different mathematical function typically requires an entirely different clever insight. This paper demonstrates that computational circuits can be designed without such problemspecific insights using a single uniform approach involving genetic programming. Both the circuit topology and the sizing of all circuit components are created by genetic programming. This uniform approach to the automated synthesis of computational circuits is illustrated by evolving circuits that perform the cube root function (for which no circuit was found in the published literature) as well as for the square root, square, and cube functions. 1.
A design methodology for highlyintegrated lowpower receivers for wireless communications
, 2001
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An analog VLSI chip for estimating the focus of expansion
 In 1997 ISSCC Digest of Technical Papers
, 1996
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Iterative Refinement of Computational Circuits Using Genetic Programming
 IEEE POSIX. IEEE POSIX 1003.1c Threads API
, 2002
"... Previous work has shown that genetic programming is capable of creating analog electrical circuits whose output equals common mathematical functions, merely by specifying the desired mathematical function that is to be produced. This paper extends this work by generating computational circuits ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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Previous work has shown that genetic programming is capable of creating analog electrical circuits whose output equals common mathematical functions, merely by specifying the desired mathematical function that is to be produced. This paper extends this work by generating computational circuits whose output is an approximation to the error function associated with an existing computational circuit (created by means of genetic programming or some other method). The output of the evolved circuit can then be added to the output of the existing circuit to produce a circuit that computes the desired function with greater accuracy. This process can be performed iteratively. We present a set of results showing the effectiveness of this approach over multiple iterations for generating squaring, square root, and cubing computational circuits. We also perform iterative refinement on a recently patented cubic signal generator circuit, obtaining a refined circuit that is 7.2 times more accurate than the original patented circuit. The iterative refinement process described herein can be viewed as a method for using previous knowledge (i.e. the existing circuit) to obtain an improved result.