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Evaluating monotone circuits on cylinders, planes, and torii
 In Proc. 23rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computing (STACS), Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2006
"... Abstract. We revisit monotone planar circuits MPCVP, with special attention to circuits with cylindrical embeddings. MPCVP is known to be in NC 3 in general, and in LogDCFL for the special case of upward stratified circuits. We characterize cylindricality, which is stronger than planarity but strict ..."
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Abstract. We revisit monotone planar circuits MPCVP, with special attention to circuits with cylindrical embeddings. MPCVP is known to be in NC 3 in general, and in LogDCFL for the special case of upward stratified circuits. We characterize cylindricality, which is stronger than planarity but strictly generalizes upward planarity, and make the characterization partially constructive. We use this construction, and four key reduction lemmas, to obtain several improvements. We show that monotone circuits with embeddings that are stratified cylindrical, cylindrical, planar oneinputface and focused can be evaluated in LogDCFL, AC 1 (LogDCFL), LogCFL and AC 1 (LogDCFL) respectively. We note that the NC 3 algorithm for general MPCVP is in AC 1 (LogCFL) =SAC 2.Finally, we show that monotone circuits with toroidal embeddings can, given such an embedding, be evaluated in NC. 1
A new characterization of ACC 0 and probabilistic CC 0
"... that the Boolean AND function can not be computed by polynomial size constant depth circuits built from modular counting gates, i.e., by CC 0 circuits. In this work we show that the AND function can be computed by uniform probabilistic CC 0 circuits that use only O(log n) random bits. This may be vi ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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that the Boolean AND function can not be computed by polynomial size constant depth circuits built from modular counting gates, i.e., by CC 0 circuits. In this work we show that the AND function can be computed by uniform probabilistic CC 0 circuits that use only O(log n) random bits. This may be viewed as evidence contrary to the conjecture. As a consequence of our construction we get that all of ACC 0 can be computed by probabilistic CC 0 circuits that use only O(log n) random bits. Thus, if one were able to derandomize such circuits, we would obtain a collapse of circuit classes giving ACC 0 = CC 0. We present a derandomization of probabilistic CC 0 circuits using AND and OR gates to obtain ACC 0 = AND ◦ OR ◦ CC 0 = OR ◦ AND ◦ CC 0. AND and OR gates of sublinear fanin suffice. Both these results hold for uniform as well as nonuniform circuit classes. For nonuniform circuits we obtain the stronger conclusion that ACC 0 = rand − ACC 0 = rand − CC 0 = rand(log n)−CC 0, i.e., probabilistic ACC 0 circuits can be simulated by probabilistic CC 0 circuits using only O(log n) random bits. As an application of our results we obtain a characterization of ACC 0 by constant width planar nondeterministic branching programs, improving a previous characterization for the quasipolynomial size setting. I.
Topology inside NC
"... We show that ACC is precisely what can be computed with constantwidth circuits of polynomial size and polylogarithmic genus. This extends a characterization given by Hansen, showing that planar constantwidth circuits also characterize ACC. Thus polylogarithmic genus provides no additional computat ..."
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We show that ACC is precisely what can be computed with constantwidth circuits of polynomial size and polylogarithmic genus. This extends a characterization given by Hansen, showing that planar constantwidth circuits also characterize ACC. Thus polylogarithmic genus provides no additional computational power in this model. We consider other generalizations of planarity, including crossing number and thickness. We show that thickness two already suffices to capture all of NC. 1
IMPROVED UPPER BOUNDS IN NC FOR MONOTONE PLANAR CIRCUIT VALUE AND SOME RESTRICTIONS AND GENERALIZATIONS
"... and for the special case of upward stratified circuits, it is known to be in LogDCFL. In this paper we reexamine the complexity of MPCVP, with special attention to circuits with cylindrical embeddings. We characterize cylindricality, which is stronger than planarity but strictly generalizes upward ..."
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and for the special case of upward stratified circuits, it is known to be in LogDCFL. In this paper we reexamine the complexity of MPCVP, with special attention to circuits with cylindrical embeddings. We characterize cylindricality, which is stronger than planarity but strictly generalizes upward planarity, and make the characterization partially constructive. We use this construction, and four key reduction lemmas, to obtain several improvements. We show that stratified cylindrical monotone circuits can be evaluated in LogDCFL, and arbitrary cylindrical monotone circuits can be evaluated in AC 1 (LogDCFL), while monotone circuits with oneinputface planar embeddings can be evaluated in LogCFL. For monotone circuits with focused embeddings, we show an upper bound of AC 1 (LogDCFL). We reexamine the NC 3 algorithm for general MPCVP, and note that it is in AC 1 (LogCFL) = SAC 2. Finally, we consider extensions beyond MPCVP. We show that monotone circuits with toroidal embeddings can, given such an embedding, be evaluated in NC. Also, special kinds of arbitrary genus circuits can also be evaluated in NC. We also show that planar nonmonotone circuits with polylogarithmic negationheight can be evaluated in NC.
The Pcomplete Circuit Value Problem CVP, when restricted
"... to monotone planar circuits MPCVP, is known to be in NC 3, and for the special case of upward stratified circuits, it is known to be in LogDCFL. In this paper we reexamine the complexity of MPCVP, with special attention to circuits with cylindrical embeddings. We characterize cylindricality, which ..."
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to monotone planar circuits MPCVP, is known to be in NC 3, and for the special case of upward stratified circuits, it is known to be in LogDCFL. In this paper we reexamine the complexity of MPCVP, with special attention to circuits with cylindrical embeddings. We characterize cylindricality, which is stronger than planarity but strictly generalizes upward planarity, and make the characterization partially constructive. We use this construction, and four key reduction lemmas, to obtain several improvements. We show that stratified cylindrical monotone circuits can be evaluated in LogDCFL, and arbitrary cylindrical monotone circuits can be evaluated in AC 1 (LogDCFL), while monotone circuits with oneinputface planar embeddings can be evaluated in LogCFL. For monotone circuits with focused embeddings, we show an upper bound of AC 1 (LogDCFL). We reexamine the NC 3 algorithm for general MPCVP, and note that it is in AC 1 (LogCFL) = SAC 2. Finally, we consider extensions beyond MPCVP. We show that monotone circuits with toroidal embeddings can, given such an embedding, be evaluated in NC. Also, special kinds of arbitrary genus circuits can also be evaluated in NC. We also show that planar nonmonotone circuits with polylogarithmic negationheight can be evaluated in NC.