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Harald Cramér and the distribution of prime numbers
 Scandanavian Actuarial J
, 1995
"... “It is evident that the primes are randomly distributed but, unfortunately, we don’t know what ‘random ’ means. ” — R. C. Vaughan (February 1990). After the first world war, Cramér began studying the distribution of prime numbers, guided by Riesz and MittagLeffler. His works then, and later in the ..."
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Cited by 42 (2 self)
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“It is evident that the primes are randomly distributed but, unfortunately, we don’t know what ‘random ’ means. ” — R. C. Vaughan (February 1990). After the first world war, Cramér began studying the distribution of prime numbers, guided by Riesz and MittagLeffler. His works then, and later in the midthirties, have had a profound influence on the way mathematicians think about the distribution of prime numbers. In this article, we shall focus on how Cramér’s ideas have directed and motivated research ever since. One can only fully appreciate the significance of Cramér’s contributions by viewing his work in the appropriate historical context. We shall begin our discussion with the ideas of the ancient Greeks, Euclid and Eratosthenes. Then we leap in time to the nineteenth century, to the computations and heuristics of Legendre and Gauss, the extraordinarily analytic insights of Dirichlet and Riemann, and the crowning glory of these ideas, the proof the “Prime Number Theorem ” by Hadamard and de la Vallée Poussin in 1896. We pick up again in the 1920’s with the questions asked by Hardy and Littlewood,
An asymptotic formula for the number of smooth values of a polynomial
 J. Number Theory
, 1999
"... Integers without large prime factors, dubbed smooth numbers, are by now firmly established as a useful and versatile tool in number theory. More than being simply a property of numbers that is conceptually dual to primality, smoothness has played a major role in the proofs of many results, from mult ..."
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Integers without large prime factors, dubbed smooth numbers, are by now firmly established as a useful and versatile tool in number theory. More than being simply a property of numbers that is conceptually dual to primality, smoothness has played a major role in the proofs of many results, from multiplicative questions to Waring’s problem to complexity
Surpassing the Ratios Conjecture in the 1level density of Dirichlet Lfunctions
 ALGEBRA & NUMBER THEORY
, 2012
"... ..."
An uncertainty principle for arithmetic sequences
, 2004
"... Analytic number theorists usually seek to show that sequences which appear naturally in arithmetic are “welldistributed ” in some appropriate sense. In various discrepancy problems, combinatorics researchers have analyzed limitations to equidistribution, as have Fourier analysts when working with ..."
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Cited by 9 (3 self)
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Analytic number theorists usually seek to show that sequences which appear naturally in arithmetic are “welldistributed ” in some appropriate sense. In various discrepancy problems, combinatorics researchers have analyzed limitations to equidistribution, as have Fourier analysts when working with the “uncertainty principle”. In this article we find that these ideas have a natural setting in the analysis of distributions of sequences in analytic number theory, formulating a general principle, and giving several examples.
On the Size of the First Factor of the Class Number of a Cyclotomic Field
, 1990
"... We show that Kummer's conjectured asymptotic estimate for the size of the first factor of the class number of a cyclotomic field is untrue under the assumption of two wellknown and widely believed conjectures of analytic number theory. 1. Introduction In 1850 Kummer [13] published a review o ..."
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Cited by 7 (2 self)
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We show that Kummer's conjectured asymptotic estimate for the size of the first factor of the class number of a cyclotomic field is untrue under the assumption of two wellknown and widely believed conjectures of analytic number theory. 1. Introduction In 1850 Kummer [13] published a review of the main results that he and others had discovered about cyclotomic fields. In this elegant report he claimed that he had found an explicit "law for the asymptotic growth" of h 1 (p), the socalled first factor of the class number of the cyclotomic field, and would provide a proof elsewhere. This proof never appeared and we believe that Kummer's claim is incorrect. More precisely, let p denote any odd prime, let h(p) be the class number of the cyclotomic field Q(i p ) (where i p is a primitive pth root of unity) and h 2 (p) be the class number of the real subfield Q(i p +i \Gamma1 p ). Kummer proved that the ratio h 1 (p) = h(p)=h 2 (p) is an integer which he called the first factor of the ...
PRIMES IN INTERVALS OF BOUNDED LENGTH
"... Abstract. In April 2013, Yitang Zhang proved the existence of a finite bound B such that there are infinitely many pairs of distinct primes which differ by no more than B. This is a massive breakthrough, makes the twin prime conjecture look highly plausible (which can be reinterpreted as the conjec ..."
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Abstract. In April 2013, Yitang Zhang proved the existence of a finite bound B such that there are infinitely many pairs of distinct primes which differ by no more than B. This is a massive breakthrough, makes the twin prime conjecture look highly plausible (which can be reinterpreted as the conjecture that one can take B 2) and his work helps us to better understand other delicate questions about prime numbers that had previously seemed intractable. The original purpose of this talk was to discuss Zhang’s extraordinary work, putting it in its context in analytic number theory, and to sketch a proof of his theorem. Zhang had even proved the result with B 70 000 000. Moreover, a cooperative team, polymath8, collaborating only online, had been able to lower the value of B to 4680. Not only had they been more careful in several difficult arguments in Zhang’s original paper, they had also developed Zhang’s techniques to be both more powerful and to allow a much simpler proof. Indeed the proof of Zhang’s Theorem, that will be given in the writeup of this talk, is based on these developments. In November, inspired by Zhang’s extraordinary breakthrough, James Maynard dra