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GREEDY RANDOMIZED ADAPTIVE SEARCH PROCEDURES
, 2002
"... GRASP is a multistart metaheuristic for combinatorial problems, in which each iteration consists basically of two phases: construction and local search. The construction phase builds a feasible solution, whose neighborhood is investigated until a local minimum is found during the local search phas ..."
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Cited by 637 (79 self)
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GRASP is a multistart metaheuristic for combinatorial problems, in which each iteration consists basically of two phases: construction and local search. The construction phase builds a feasible solution, whose neighborhood is investigated until a local minimum is found during the local search phase. The best overall solution is kept as the result. In this chapter, we first describe the basic components of GRASP. Successful implementation techniques and parameter tuning strategies are discussed and illustrated by numerical results obtained for different applications. Enhanced or alternative solution construction mechanisms and techniques to speed up the search are also described: Reactive GRASP, cost perturbations, bias functions, memory and learning, local search on partially constructed solutions, hashing, and filtering. We also discuss in detail implementation strategies of memorybased intensification and postoptimization techniques using pathrelinking. Hybridizations with other metaheuristics, parallelization strategies, and applications are also reviewed.
Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures For The Steiner Problem In Graphs
 QUADRATIC ASSIGNMENT AND RELATED PROBLEMS, VOLUME 16 OF DIMACS SERIES ON DISCRETE MATHEMATICS AND THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1999
"... We describe four versions of a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) for finding approximate solutions of general instances of the Steiner Problem in Graphs. Di#erent construction and local search algorithms are presented. Preliminary computational results with one of the versions ..."
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Cited by 121 (30 self)
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We describe four versions of a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) for finding approximate solutions of general instances of the Steiner Problem in Graphs. Di#erent construction and local search algorithms are presented. Preliminary computational results with one of the versions on a variety of test problems are reported. On the majority of instances from the ORLibrary, a set of standard test problems, the GRASP produced optimal solutions. On those that optimal solutions were not found, the GRASP found good quality approximate solutions.
The Quadratic Assignment Problem: A Survey and Recent Developments
 In Proceedings of the DIMACS Workshop on Quadratic Assignment Problems, volume 16 of DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1994
"... . Quadratic Assignment Problems model many applications in diverse areas such as operations research, parallel and distributed computing, and combinatorial data analysis. In this paper we survey some of the most important techniques, applications, and methods regarding the quadratic assignment probl ..."
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Cited by 114 (16 self)
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. Quadratic Assignment Problems model many applications in diverse areas such as operations research, parallel and distributed computing, and combinatorial data analysis. In this paper we survey some of the most important techniques, applications, and methods regarding the quadratic assignment problem. We focus our attention on recent developments. 1. Introduction Given a set N = f1; 2; : : : ; ng and n \Theta n matrices F = (f ij ) and D = (d kl ), the quadratic assignment problem (QAP) can be stated as follows: min p2\Pi N n X i=1 n X j=1 f ij d p(i)p(j) + n X i=1 c ip(i) ; where \Pi N is the set of all permutations of N . One of the major applications of the QAP is in location theory where the matrix F = (f ij ) is the flow matrix, i.e. f ij is the flow of materials from facility i to facility j, and D = (d kl ) is the distance matrix, i.e. d kl represents the distance from location k to location l [62, 67, 137]. The cost of simultaneously assigning facility i to locat...
Genetic algorithms and tabu search: hybrids for optimization
 Comput. Oper. Res
, 1995
"... Scope and Purpo~The development of hybrid procedures for optimization focuses on enhancing the strengths and compensating for the weaknesses of two or more complementary approaches. The goal is to intelligently combine the key elements of competing methodologies to create a superior solution proce ..."
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Cited by 41 (1 self)
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Scope and Purpo~The development of hybrid procedures for optimization focuses on enhancing the strengths and compensating for the weaknesses of two or more complementary approaches. The goal is to intelligently combine the key elements of competing methodologies to create a superior solution procedure. Our paper explores the marriage between tabu search and genetic algorithms in the context of solving difficult optimization problems. Among other ideas, the procedure known as scatter search is revisited to create a unifying environment where tabu search and genetic algorithms can coexist. Overall, our objective is to demonstrate that it is possible to establish useful connections between methods whose search principles may superficially appear unrelated. AbstractGenetic algorithms and tabu search have a number of significant differences. They also have some common bonds, often unrecognized. We explore the nature of the connections between the methods, and show that a variety of opportunities exist for creating hybrid approaches to take advantage of their complementary features. Tabu search has pioneered the systematic exploration of memory functions in search processes, while genetic algorithms have pioneered the implementation of methods that exploit the idea of combining solutions. There is also another approach, related to both of these, that is frequently overlooked. The procedure called scatter search, whose origins overlap with those of tabu search (and
Current trends in deterministic scheduling
 ANNALS OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH
, 1997
"... Scheduling is concerned with allocating limited resources to tasks to optimize certain objective functions. Due to the popularity of the Total Quality Management concept, ontime delivery of jobs has become one of the crucial factors for customer satisfaction. Scheduling plays an important role in ac ..."
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Cited by 35 (1 self)
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Scheduling is concerned with allocating limited resources to tasks to optimize certain objective functions. Due to the popularity of the Total Quality Management concept, ontime delivery of jobs has become one of the crucial factors for customer satisfaction. Scheduling plays an important role in achieving this goal. Recent developments in scheduling theory have focused on extending the models to include more practical constraints. Furthermore, due to the complexity studies conducted during the last two decades, it is now widely understood that most practical problems are NPhard. This is one of the reasons why local search methods have been studied so extensively during the last decade. In this paper, we review briefly some of the recent extensions of scheduling theory, the recent developments in local search techniques and the new developments of scheduling in practice. Particularly, we survey two recent extensions of theory: scheduling with a 1jobonrmachine pattern and machine scheduling with availability constraints. We also review several local search techniques, including simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms and constraint guided heuristic search. Finally, we study the robotic cell scheduling problem, the automated guided vehicles scheduling problem, and the hoist scheduling problem.
A Grasp For Satisfiability
 CLIQUES, COLORING, AND SATISFIABILITY: THE SECOND DIMACS IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGE, VOLUME 26 OF DIMACS SERIES ON DISCRETE MATHEMATICS AND THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1996
"... A greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (Grasp) is a randomized heuristic that has been shown to quickly produce good quality solutions for a wide variety of combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we describe a Grasp for the satisfiability (SAT) problem. This algorithm can be also ..."
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Cited by 30 (6 self)
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A greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (Grasp) is a randomized heuristic that has been shown to quickly produce good quality solutions for a wide variety of combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we describe a Grasp for the satisfiability (SAT) problem. This algorithm can be also directly applied to both the weighted and unweighted versions of the maximum satisfiability (MAXSAT) problem. We review basic concepts of Grasp: construction and local search algorithms. The implementation of Grasp for the SAT problem is described in detail. Computational experience on a large set of test problems is presented.
A greedy randomized adaptive search procedure for job shop scheduling
 IEEE Trans. on Power Systems
, 2001
"... Abstract. In the job shop scheduling problem (JSP), a finite set of jobs is processed on a finite set of machines. Each job is characterized by a fixed order of operations, each of which is to be processed on a specific machine for a specified duration. Each machine can process at most one job at a ..."
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Cited by 24 (2 self)
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Abstract. In the job shop scheduling problem (JSP), a finite set of jobs is processed on a finite set of machines. Each job is characterized by a fixed order of operations, each of which is to be processed on a specific machine for a specified duration. Each machine can process at most one job at a time and once a job initiates processing on a given machine it must complete processing uninterrupted. A schedule is an assignment of operations to time slots on the machines. The objective of the JSP is to find a schedule that minimizes the maximum completion time, or makespan, of the jobs. In this paper, we describe a greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP) for the JSP. A GRASP is a metaheuristic for combinatorial optimization. Although GRASP is a general procedure, its basic concepts are customized for the problem being solved. We describe in detail our implementation of GRASP for job shop scheduling. Further, we incorporate to the conventional GRASP two new concepts: an intensification strategy and POP (Proximate Optimality Principle) in the construction phase. These two concepts were first proposed by Fleurent & Glover (1999) in the context of the quadratic assignment problem. Computational experience on a large set of standard test problems indicates that GRASP is a competitive algorithm for finding approximate solutions of the job shop scheduling problem. 1.
A Column Generation Based Decomposition Algorithm for a Parallel Machine JustInTime Scheduling Problem
, 1997
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An Enhanced TSPBased Heuristic for Makespan Minimization In a Flow Shop with Setup Times
, 1997
"... This paper presents an enhanced heuristic for minimizing the makespan of the flow shop scheduling problem with sequencedependent setup times. The procedure transforms an instance of the problem into an instance of the traveling salesman problem by introducing a cost function that penalizes for both ..."
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Cited by 10 (0 self)
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This paper presents an enhanced heuristic for minimizing the makespan of the flow shop scheduling problem with sequencedependent setup times. The procedure transforms an instance of the problem into an instance of the traveling salesman problem by introducing a cost function that penalizes for both large setup times and bad fitness of schedule. This hybrid cost function is an improvement over earlier approaches that penalized for setup times only, ignoring the flow shop aspect of the problem. To establish good parameter values, each component of the heuristic was evaluated computationally over a wide range of problem instances. In the testing stage, an experimental comparison with a greedy randomized adaptive search procedure revealed the conditions and data attributes where the proposed procedure works best.