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254
An Empirical Study of Smoothing Techniques for Language Modeling
, 1998
"... We present an extensive empirical comparison of several smoothing techniques in the domain of language modeling, including those described by Jelinek and Mercer (1980), Katz (1987), and Church and Gale (1991). We investigate for the first time how factors such as training data size, corpus (e.g., Br ..."
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Cited by 849 (20 self)
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We present an extensive empirical comparison of several smoothing techniques in the domain of language modeling, including those described by Jelinek and Mercer (1980), Katz (1987), and Church and Gale (1991). We investigate for the first time how factors such as training data size, corpus (e.g., Brown versus Wall Street Journal), and ngram order (bigram versus trigram) affect the relative performance of these methods, which we measure through the crossentropy of test data. In addition, we introduce two novel smoothing techniques, one a variation of JelinekMercer smoothing and one a very simple linear interpolation technique, both of which outperform existing methods. 1
Hierarchical phrasebased translation
 Computational Linguistics
, 2007
"... We present a statistical machine translation model that uses hierarchical phrases—phrases that contain subphrases. The model is formally a synchronous contextfree grammar but is learned from a parallel text without any syntactic annotations. Thus it can be seen as combining fundamental ideas from b ..."
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Cited by 375 (7 self)
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We present a statistical machine translation model that uses hierarchical phrases—phrases that contain subphrases. The model is formally a synchronous contextfree grammar but is learned from a parallel text without any syntactic annotations. Thus it can be seen as combining fundamental ideas from both syntaxbased translation and phrasebased translation. We describe our system’s training and decoding methods in detail, and evaluate it for translation speed and translation accuracy. Using BLEU as a metric of translation accuracy, we find that our system performs significantly better than the Alignment Template System, a stateoftheart phrasebased system. 1.
A Gaussian Prior for Smoothing Maximum Entropy Models
, 1999
"... In certain contexts, maximum entropy (ME) modeling can be viewed as maximum likelihood training for exponential models, and like other maximum likelihood methods is prone to overfitting of training data. Several smoothing methods for maximum entropy models have been proposed to address this problem, ..."
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Cited by 229 (2 self)
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In certain contexts, maximum entropy (ME) modeling can be viewed as maximum likelihood training for exponential models, and like other maximum likelihood methods is prone to overfitting of training data. Several smoothing methods for maximum entropy models have been proposed to address this problem, but previous results do not make it clear how these smoothing methods compare with smoothing methods for other types of related models. In this work, we survey previous work in maximum entropy smoothing and compare the performance of several of these algorithms with conventional techniques for smoothing ngram language models. Because of the mature body of research in ngram model smoothing and the close connection between maximum entropy and conventional ngram models, this domain is wellsuited to gauge the performance of maximum entropy smoothing methods. Over a large number of data sets, we find that an ME smoothing method proposed to us by Lafferty [1] performs as well as or better tha...
Two decades of statistical language modeling: Where do we go from here
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 2000
"... Statistical Language Models estimate the distribution of various natural language phenomena for the purpose of speech recognition and other language technologies. Since the first significant model was proposed in 1980, many attempts have been made to improve the state of the art. We review them here ..."
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Cited by 147 (1 self)
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Statistical Language Models estimate the distribution of various natural language phenomena for the purpose of speech recognition and other language technologies. Since the first significant model was proposed in 1980, many attempts have been made to improve the state of the art. We review them here, point to a few promising directions, and argue for a Bayesian approach to integration of linguistic theories with data. 1. OUTLINE Statistical language modeling (SLM) is the attempt to capture regularities of natural language for the purpose of improving the performance of various natural language applications. By and large, statistical language modeling amounts to estimating the probability distribution of various linguistic units, such as words, sentences, and whole documents. Statistical language modeling is crucial for a large variety of language technology applications. These include speech recognition (where SLM got its start), machine translation, document classification and routing, optical character recognition, information retrieval, handwriting recognition, spelling correction, and many more. In machine translation, for example, purely statistical approaches have been introduced in [1]. But even researchers using rulebased approaches have found it beneficial to introduce some elements of SLM and statistical estimation [2]. In information retrieval, a language modeling approach was recently proposed by [3], and a statistical/information theoretical approach was developed by [4]. SLM employs statistical estimation techniques using language training data, that is, text. Because of the categorical nature of language, and the large vocabularies people naturally use, statistical techniques must estimate a large number of parameters, and consequently depend critically on the availability of large amounts of training data.
A Neural Probabilistic Language Model
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2003
"... A goal of statistical language modeling is to learn the joint probability function of sequences of words in a language. This is intrinsically difficult because of the curse of dimensionality: a word sequence on which the model will be tested is likely to be different from all the word sequences seen ..."
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Cited by 145 (12 self)
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A goal of statistical language modeling is to learn the joint probability function of sequences of words in a language. This is intrinsically difficult because of the curse of dimensionality: a word sequence on which the model will be tested is likely to be different from all the word sequences seen during training. Traditional but very successful approaches based on ngrams obtain generalization by concatenating very short overlapping sequences seen in the training set. We propose to fight the curse of dimensionality by learning a distributed representation for words which allows each training sentence to inform the model about an exponential number of semantically neighboring sentences. The model learns simultaneously (1) a distributed representation for each word along with (2) the probability function for word sequences, expressed in terms of these representations. Generalization is obtained because a sequence of words that has never been seen before gets high probability if it is made of words that are similar (in the sense of having a nearby representation) to words forming an already seen sentence. Training such large models (with millions of parameters) within a reasonable time is itself a significant challenge. We report on experiments using neural networks for the probability function, showing on two text corpora that the proposed approach significantly improves on stateoftheart ngram models, and that the proposed approach allows to take advantage of longer contexts.
Large language models in machine translation
 In Proceedings of the Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning
, 2007
"... This paper reports on the benefits of largescale statistical language modeling in machine translation. A distributed infrastructure is proposed which we use to train on up to 2 trillion tokens, resulting in language models having up to 300 billion ngrams. It is capable of providing smoothed probabi ..."
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Cited by 118 (4 self)
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This paper reports on the benefits of largescale statistical language modeling in machine translation. A distributed infrastructure is proposed which we use to train on up to 2 trillion tokens, resulting in language models having up to 300 billion ngrams. It is capable of providing smoothed probabilities for fast, singlepass decoding. We introduce a new smoothing method, dubbed Stupid Backoff, that is inexpensive to train on large data sets and approaches the quality of KneserNey Smoothing as the amount of training data increases. 1
A Bit of Progress in Language Modeling
, 2001
"... Language modeling is the art of determining the probability of a sequence of words. This is useful in a large variety of areas including speech recognition, optical character recognition, handwriting recognition, machine translation, and spelling correction (Church, 1988; Brown et al., 1990; Hull, 1 ..."
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Cited by 87 (2 self)
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Language modeling is the art of determining the probability of a sequence of words. This is useful in a large variety of areas including speech recognition, optical character recognition, handwriting recognition, machine translation, and spelling correction (Church, 1988; Brown et al., 1990; Hull, 1992; Kernighan et al., 1990; Srihari and Baltus, 1992). The most commonly used language models are very simple (e.g. a Katzsmoothed trigram model). There are many improvements over this simple model however, including caching, clustering, higherorder ngrams, skipping models, and sentencemixture models, all of which we will describe below. Unfortunately, these more complicated techniques have rarely been examined in combination. It is entirely possible that two techniques that work well separately will not work well together, and, as we will show, even possible that some techniques will work better together than either one does by itself. In this...
A WinnowBased Approach to ContextSensitive Spelling Correction
 Machine Learning
, 1999
"... A large class of machinelearning problems in natural language require the characterization of linguistic context. Two characteristic properties of such problems are that their feature space is of very high dimensionality, and their target concepts depend on only a small subset of the features in th ..."
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Cited by 86 (1 self)
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A large class of machinelearning problems in natural language require the characterization of linguistic context. Two characteristic properties of such problems are that their feature space is of very high dimensionality, and their target concepts depend on only a small subset of the features in the space. Under such conditions, multiplicative weightupdate algorithms such as Winnow have been shown to have exceptionally good theoretical properties. In the work reported here, we present an algorithm combining variants of Winnow and weightedmajority voting, and apply it to a problem in the aforementioned class: contextsensitive spelling correction. This is the task of fixing spelling errors that happen to result in valid words, such as substituting to for too, casual for causal, and so on. We evaluate our algorithm, WinSpell, by comparing it against BaySpell, a statisticsbased method representing the state of the art for this task. We find: (1) When run with a full (unpruned) set ...
SPMT: Statistical Machine Translation with Syntactified Target Language Phrases
 in Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP 2006
, 2006
"... We introduce SPMT, a new class of statistical Translation Models that use Syntactified target language Phrases. The SPMT models outperform a state of the art phrasebased baseline model by 2.64 Bleu points on the NIST 2003 ChineseEnglish test corpus and 0.28 points on a humanbased quality metric th ..."
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Cited by 82 (6 self)
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We introduce SPMT, a new class of statistical Translation Models that use Syntactified target language Phrases. The SPMT models outperform a state of the art phrasebased baseline model by 2.64 Bleu points on the NIST 2003 ChineseEnglish test corpus and 0.28 points on a humanbased quality metric that ranks translations on a scale from 1 to 5. 1