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144
Multiple Description Coding: Compression Meets the Network
, 2001
"... This article focuses on the compressed representations of the pictures ..."
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Cited by 293 (7 self)
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This article focuses on the compressed representations of the pictures
Deterministic Annealing for Clustering, Compression, Classification, Regression, and Related Optimization Problems
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 1998
"... this paper. Let us place it within the neural network perspective, and particularly that of learning. The area of neural networks has greatly benefited from its unique position at the crossroads of several diverse scientific and engineering disciplines including statistics and probability theory, ph ..."
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Cited by 247 (11 self)
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this paper. Let us place it within the neural network perspective, and particularly that of learning. The area of neural networks has greatly benefited from its unique position at the crossroads of several diverse scientific and engineering disciplines including statistics and probability theory, physics, biology, control and signal processing, information theory, complexity theory, and psychology (see [45]). Neural networks have provided a fertile soil for the infusion (and occasionally confusion) of ideas, as well as a meeting ground for comparing viewpoints, sharing tools, and renovating approaches. It is within the illdefined boundaries of the field of neural networks that researchers in traditionally distant fields have come to the realization that they have been attacking fundamentally similar optimization problems.
Hidden Markov processes
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2002
"... Abstract—An overview of statistical and informationtheoretic aspects of hidden Markov processes (HMPs) is presented. An HMP is a discretetime finitestate homogeneous Markov chain observed through a discretetime memoryless invariant channel. In recent years, the work of Baum and Petrie on finite ..."
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Cited by 172 (3 self)
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Abstract—An overview of statistical and informationtheoretic aspects of hidden Markov processes (HMPs) is presented. An HMP is a discretetime finitestate homogeneous Markov chain observed through a discretetime memoryless invariant channel. In recent years, the work of Baum and Petrie on finitestate finitealphabet HMPs was expanded to HMPs with finite as well as continuous state spaces and a general alphabet. In particular, statistical properties and ergodic theorems for relative entropy densities of HMPs were developed. Consistency and asymptotic normality of the maximumlikelihood (ML) parameter estimator were proved under some mild conditions. Similar results were established for switching autoregressive processes. These processes generalize HMPs. New algorithms were developed for estimating the state, parameter, and order of an HMP, for universal coding and classification of HMPs, and for universal decoding of hidden Markov channels. These and other related topics are reviewed in this paper. Index Terms—Baum–Petrie algorithm, entropy ergodic theorems, finitestate channels, hidden Markov models, identifiability, Kalman filter, maximumlikelihood (ML) estimation, order estimation, recursive parameter estimation, switching autoregressive processes, Ziv inequality. I.
Systems with finite communication bandwidth constraints—I: State estimation problems
 Stanford University, Stanford, CA
, 1997
"... Abstract—In this paper a new class of feedback control problems is introduced. Unlike classical models, the systems considered here have communication channel constraints. As a result, the issue of coding and communication protocol becomes an integral part of the analysis. Since these systems cannot ..."
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Cited by 119 (1 self)
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Abstract—In this paper a new class of feedback control problems is introduced. Unlike classical models, the systems considered here have communication channel constraints. As a result, the issue of coding and communication protocol becomes an integral part of the analysis. Since these systems cannot be asymptotically stabilized if the underlying dynamics are unstable, a weaker stability concept called containability is introduced. A key result connects containability with an inequality equation involving the communication data rate and the rate of change of the state. Index Terms — Asymptotic stability, containability, feedback control, Kraft inequality.
On the Interdependence of Routing and Data Compression in MultiHop Sensor Networks
, 2002
"... We consider a problem of broadcast communication in a multihop sensor network, in which samples of a random field are collected at each node of the network, and the goal is for all nodes to obtain an estimate of the entire field within a prescribed distortion value. The main idea we explore in this ..."
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Cited by 114 (7 self)
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We consider a problem of broadcast communication in a multihop sensor network, in which samples of a random field are collected at each node of the network, and the goal is for all nodes to obtain an estimate of the entire field within a prescribed distortion value. The main idea we explore in this paper is that of jointly compressing the data generated by different nodes as this information travels over multiple hops, to eliminate correlations in the representation of the sampled field. Our main contributions are: (a) we obtain, using simple network flow concepts, conditions on the rate/distortion function of the random field, so as to guarantee that any node can obtain the measurements collected at every other node in the network, quantized to within any prescribed distortion value; and (b), we construct a large class of physicallymotivated stochastic models for sensor data, for which we are able to prove that the joint rate/distortion function of all the data generated by the whole network grows slower than the bounds found in (a). A truly novel aspect of our work is the tight coupling between routing and source coding, explicitly formulated in a simple and analytically tractable modelto the best of our knowledge, this connection had not been studied before.
The duality between information embedding and source coding with side information and some applications
 in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Information Theory
, 2001
"... Abstract—Aspects of the duality between the informationembedding problem and the Wyner–Ziv problem of source coding with side information at the decoder are developed and used to establish a spectrum new results on these and related problems, with implications for a number of important applications ..."
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Cited by 68 (11 self)
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Abstract—Aspects of the duality between the informationembedding problem and the Wyner–Ziv problem of source coding with side information at the decoder are developed and used to establish a spectrum new results on these and related problems, with implications for a number of important applications. The singleletter characterization of the informationembedding problem is developed and related to the corresponding characterization of the Wyner–Ziv problem, both of which correspond to optimization of a common mutual information difference. Dual variables and dual Markov conditions are identified, along with the dual role of noise and distortion in the two problems. For a Gaussian context with quadratic distortion metric, a geometric interpretation of the duality is developed. From such insights, we develop a capacityachieving informationembedding system based on nested lattices. We show the resulting encoder–decoder
Theoretical Foundations of Transform Coding
, 2001
"... This article explains the fundamental principles of transform coding; these principles apply equally well to images, audio, video, and various other types of data, so abstract formulations are given. Much of the material presented here is adapted from [14, Chap. 2, 4]. The details on wavelet transfo ..."
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Cited by 67 (6 self)
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This article explains the fundamental principles of transform coding; these principles apply equally well to images, audio, video, and various other types of data, so abstract formulations are given. Much of the material presented here is adapted from [14, Chap. 2, 4]. The details on wavelet transformbased image compression and the JPEG2000 image compression standard are given in the following two articles of this special issue [38], [37]
Source Model for Transform Video Coder and Its Application  Part I: Fundamental Theory
 IEEE Trans. on CSVT
, 1997
"... Abstract — In the first part of this paper, we derive a source model describing the relationship between bits, distortion, and quantization step size for transform coders. Based on this source model, a variable frame rate coding algorithm is developed. The basic idea is to select a proper picture fr ..."
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Cited by 66 (0 self)
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Abstract — In the first part of this paper, we derive a source model describing the relationship between bits, distortion, and quantization step size for transform coders. Based on this source model, a variable frame rate coding algorithm is developed. The basic idea is to select a proper picture frame rate to ensure a minimum picture quality for every frame. Because our source model can predict approximately the number of coded bits when a certain quantization step size is used, we could predict the quality and bits of coded images without going through the entire realcoding process. Therefore, we could skip the right number of picture frames to accomplish the goal of constant image quality. Our proposed variable frame rate coding schemes are simple but quite effective as demonstrated by simulation results. The results of using another variable frame rate scheme, Test Model for H.263 (TMN5), and the results of using a fixed frame rate coding scheme, Reference Model 8 for H.261 (RM8), are also provided for comparison. Index Terms — Image coding, rate distortion theory, source coding. I.
Generalized multiple description coding with correlating transforms
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2001
"... Abstract—Multiple description (MD) coding is source coding in which several descriptions of the source are produced such that various reconstruction qualities are obtained from different subsets of the descriptions. Unlike multiresolution or layered source coding, there is no hierarchy of descriptio ..."
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Cited by 61 (2 self)
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Abstract—Multiple description (MD) coding is source coding in which several descriptions of the source are produced such that various reconstruction qualities are obtained from different subsets of the descriptions. Unlike multiresolution or layered source coding, there is no hierarchy of descriptions; thus, MD coding is suitable for packet erasure channels or networks without priority provisions. Generalizing work by Orchard, Wang, Vaishampayan, and Reibman, a transformbased approach is developed for producing descriptions of antuple source,. The descriptions are sets of transform coefficients, and the transform coefficients of different descriptions are correlated so that missing coefficients can be estimated. Several transform optimization results are presented for memoryless Gaussian sources, including a complete solution of the aP, aPcase with arbitrary weighting of the descriptions. The technique is effective only when independent components of the source have differing variances. Numerical studies show that this method performs well at low redundancies, as compared to uniform MD scalar quantization. Index Terms—Erasure channels, integertointeger transforms, packet networks, robust source coding.
A Unified RateDistortion Analysis Framework for Transform Coding
 IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol
, 2001
"... In our previous work, we have developed a ratedistortion (RD) modeling framework H.263 video coding by introducing the new concepts of characteristic rate curves and rate curve decomposition. In this paper, we further show it is a unified RD analysis framework for all typical image/video transfor ..."
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Cited by 61 (4 self)
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In our previous work, we have developed a ratedistortion (RD) modeling framework H.263 video coding by introducing the new concepts of characteristic rate curves and rate curve decomposition. In this paper, we further show it is a unified RD analysis framework for all typical image/video transform coding systems, such as EZW, SPIHT and JPEG image coding; MPEG2, H.263, and MPEG4 video coding. Based on this framework, a unified RD estimation and control algorithm is proposed for all typical transform coding systems. We have also provided a theoretical justification for the unique properties of the characteristic rate curves. A linear rate regulation scheme is designed to further improve the estimation accuracy and robustness, as well as to reduce the computational complexity of the RD estimation algorithm. Our extensive experimental results show that with the proposed algorithm, we can accurately estimate the RD functions and robustly control the output bit rate or picture quality of the image/video encoder.