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60
Solving A Polynomial Equation: Some History And Recent Progress
, 1997
"... The classical problem of solving an nth degree polynomial equation has substantially influenced the development of mathematics throughout the centuries and still has several important applications to the theory and practice of presentday computing. We briefly recall the history of the algorithmic a ..."
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Cited by 85 (16 self)
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The classical problem of solving an nth degree polynomial equation has substantially influenced the development of mathematics throughout the centuries and still has several important applications to the theory and practice of presentday computing. We briefly recall the history of the algorithmic approach to this problem and then review some successful solution algorithms. We end by outlining some algorithms of 1995 that solve this problem at a surprisingly low computational cost.
LOWER BOUNDS FOR DIOPHANTINE APPROXIMATIONS
, 1996
"... We introduce a subexponential algorithm for geometric solving of multivariate polynomial equation systems whose bit complexity depends mainly on intrinsic geometric invariants of the solution set. ¿From this algorithm, we derive a new procedure for the decision of consistency of polynomial equation ..."
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Cited by 62 (24 self)
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We introduce a subexponential algorithm for geometric solving of multivariate polynomial equation systems whose bit complexity depends mainly on intrinsic geometric invariants of the solution set. ¿From this algorithm, we derive a new procedure for the decision of consistency of polynomial equation systems whose bit complexity is subexponential, too. As a byproduct, we analyze the division of a polynomial modulo a reduced complete intersection ideal and from this, we obtain an intrinsic lower bound for the logarithmic height of diophantine approximations to a given solution of a zero–dimensional polynomial equation system. This result represents a multivariate version of Liouville’s classical theorem on approximation of algebraic numbers by rationals. A special feature of our procedures is their polynomial character with respect to the mentioned geometric invariants when instead of bit operations only arithmetic operations are counted at unit cost. Technically our paper relies on the use of straight–line programs as a data structure for the encoding of polynomials, on a new symbolic application of Newton’s algorithm to the Implicit Function Theorem and on a special, basis independent trace formula for affine Gorenstein algebras.
Complexity of Bézout’s Theorem IV : Probability of Success, Extensions
 SIAM J. Numer. Anal
, 1996
"... � � � We estimate the probability that a given number of projective Newton steps applied to a linear homotopy of a system of n homogeneous polynomial equations in n +1 complex variables of fixed degrees will find all the roots of the system. We also extend the framework of our analysis to cover the ..."
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Cited by 60 (9 self)
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� � � We estimate the probability that a given number of projective Newton steps applied to a linear homotopy of a system of n homogeneous polynomial equations in n +1 complex variables of fixed degrees will find all the roots of the system. We also extend the framework of our analysis to cover the classical implicit function theorem and revisit the condition number in this context. Further complexity theory is developed. 1. Introduction. 1A. Bezout’s Theorem Revisited. Let f: � n+1 → � n be a system of homogeneous polynomials f =(f1,...,fn), deg fi = di, i=1,...,n. The linear space of such f is denoted by H (d) where d = (d1,...,dn). Consider the
Complexity of Bezout's theorem V: Polynomial time
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1994
"... this paper is to show that the problem of finding approximately a zero of a polynomial system of equations can be solved in polynomial time, on the average. The number of arithmetic operations is bounded by cN ..."
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Cited by 52 (5 self)
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this paper is to show that the problem of finding approximately a zero of a polynomial system of equations can be solved in polynomial time, on the average. The number of arithmetic operations is bounded by cN
How many zeros of a random polynomial are real
 Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. (N.S
, 1995
"... Abstract. We provide an elementary geometric derivation of the Kac integral formula for the expected number of real zeros of a random polynomial with independent standard normally distributed coefficients. We show that the expected number of real zeros is simply the length of the moment curve (1, t, ..."
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Cited by 46 (0 self)
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Abstract. We provide an elementary geometric derivation of the Kac integral formula for the expected number of real zeros of a random polynomial with independent standard normally distributed coefficients. We show that the expected number of real zeros is simply the length of the moment curve (1, t,..., t n) projected onto the surface of the unit sphere, divided by π. The probability density of the real zeros is proportional to how fast this curve is traced out. We then relax Kac’s assumptions by considering a variety of random sums, series, and distributions, and we also illustrate such ideas as integral geometry and the FubiniStudy metric. Contents 1.
A geometric approach to perturbation theory of matrices and matrix pencils. Part II: A stratificationenhanced staircase algorithm
 SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl
, 1997
"... Computing the Jordan form of a matrix or the Kronecker structure of a pencil is a wellknown illposed problem. We propose that knowledge of the closure relations, i.e., the stratification, of the orbits and bundles of the various forms may be applied in the staircase algorithm. Here we discuss and ..."
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Cited by 35 (8 self)
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Computing the Jordan form of a matrix or the Kronecker structure of a pencil is a wellknown illposed problem. We propose that knowledge of the closure relations, i.e., the stratification, of the orbits and bundles of the various forms may be applied in the staircase algorithm. Here we discuss and complete the mathematical theory of these relationships and show how they may be applied to the staircase algorithm. This paper is a continuation of our Part I paper on versal deformations, but may also be read independently.
Optimal and nearly optimal algorithms for approximating polynomial zeros
 Comput. Math. Appl
, 1996
"... AbstractWe substantially improve the known algorithms for approximating all the complex zeros of an n th degree polynomial p(x). Our new algorithms save both Boolean and arithmetic sequential time, versus the previous best algorithms of SchSnhage [1], Pan [2], and Neff and Reif [3]. In parallel (N ..."
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Cited by 30 (14 self)
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AbstractWe substantially improve the known algorithms for approximating all the complex zeros of an n th degree polynomial p(x). Our new algorithms save both Boolean and arithmetic sequential time, versus the previous best algorithms of SchSnhage [1], Pan [2], and Neff and Reif [3]. In parallel (NC) implementation, we dramatically decrease the number of processors, versus the parallel algorithm of Neff [4], which was the only NC algorithm known for this problem so far. Specifically, under the simple normalization assumption that the variable x has been scaled so as to confine the zeros of p(x) to the unit disc {x: Ix [ < 1}, our algorithms (which promise to be practically effective) approximate all the zeros of p(x) within the absolute error bound 2b, by using order of n arithmetic operations and order of (b + n)n 2 Boolean (bitwise) operations (in both cases up to within polylogarithmic factors). The algorithms allow their optimal (work preserving) NC parallelization, so that they can be implemented by using polylogarithmic time and the orders of n arithmetic processors or (b + n)n 2 Boolean processors. All the cited bounds on the computational complexity are within polylogarithmic factors from the optimum (in terms of n and b) under both arithmetic and Boolean models of computation (in the Boolean case, under the additional (realistic) assumption that n = O(b)).
Polar varieties and efficient real elimination
 MATH. Z
, 2001
"... Let S0 be a smooth and compact real variety given by a reduced regular sequence of polynomials f1,..., fp. This paper is devoted to the algorithmic problem of finding efficiently a representative point for each connected component of S0. For this purpose we exhibit explicit polynomial equations th ..."
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Cited by 29 (12 self)
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Let S0 be a smooth and compact real variety given by a reduced regular sequence of polynomials f1,..., fp. This paper is devoted to the algorithmic problem of finding efficiently a representative point for each connected component of S0. For this purpose we exhibit explicit polynomial equations that describe the generic polar varieties of S0. This leads to a procedure which solves our algorithmic problem in time that is polynomial in the (extrinsic) description length of the input equations f1,..., fp and in a suitably introduced, intrinsic geometric parameter, called the degree of the real interpretation of the given equation system f1,..., fp.
Polar Varieties and Efficient Real Equation Solving: The Hypersurface Case
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 3RD CONFERENCE APPROXIMATION AND OPTIMIZATION IN THE CARIBBEAN, IN: APORTACIONES MATEMÁTICAS, MEXICAN SOCIETY OF MATHEMATICS
, 1998
"... The objective of this paper is to show how the recently proposed method by Giusti, Heintz, Morais, Morgenstern, Pardo [10] can be applied to a case of real polynomial equation solving. Our main result concerns the problem of finding one representative point for each connected component of a real bou ..."
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Cited by 26 (6 self)
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The objective of this paper is to show how the recently proposed method by Giusti, Heintz, Morais, Morgenstern, Pardo [10] can be applied to a case of real polynomial equation solving. Our main result concerns the problem of finding one representative point for each connected component of a real bounded smooth hypersurface. The algorithm in [10] yields a method for symbolically solving a zerodimensional polynomial equation system in the affine (and toric) case. Its main feature is the use of adapted data structure: Arithmetical networks and straightline programs. The algorithm solves any affine zerodimensional equation system in nonuniform sequential time that is polynomial in the length of the input description and an adequately defined affine degree of the equation system. Replacing the affine degree of the equation system by a suitably defined real degree of certain polar varieties associated to the input equation, which describes the hypersurface under consideration, and using straightline program codification of the input and intermediate results, we obtain a method for the problem introduced above that is polynomial in the input length and the real degree.