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73
A powerdomain construction
 SIAM J. of Computing
, 1976
"... Abstract. We develop a powerdomain construction, [.], which is analogous to the powerset construction and also fits in with the usual sum, product and exponentiation constructions on domains. The desire for such a construction arises when considering programming languages with nondeterministic featu ..."
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Cited by 210 (20 self)
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Abstract. We develop a powerdomain construction, [.], which is analogous to the powerset construction and also fits in with the usual sum, product and exponentiation constructions on domains. The desire for such a construction arises when considering programming languages with nondeterministic features or parallel features treated in a nondeterministic way. We hope to achieve a natural, fully abstract semantics in which such equivalences as (pparq)=(qparp) hold. The domain (D Truthvalues) is not the right one, and instead we take the (finitely) generable subsets of D. When D is discrete they are ordered in an elementwise fashion. In the general case they are given the coarsest ordering consistent, in an appropriate sense, with the ordering given in the discrete case. We then find a restricted class of algebraic inductive partial orders which is closed under [. as well as the sum, product and exponentiation constructions. This class permits the solution of recursive domain equations, and we give some illustrative semantics using 5[.]. It remains to be seen if our powerdomain construction does give rise to fully abstract semantics, although such natural equivalences as the above do hold. The major deficiency is the lack of a convincing treatment of the fair parallel construct. 1. Introduction. When one follows the ScottStrachey approach to the
Relational Properties of Domains
 Information and Computation
, 1996
"... New tools are presented for reasoning about properties of recursively defined domains. We work within a general, categorytheoretic framework for various notions of `relation' on domains and for actions of domain constructors on relations. Freyd's analysis of recursive types in terms of a property o ..."
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Cited by 99 (5 self)
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New tools are presented for reasoning about properties of recursively defined domains. We work within a general, categorytheoretic framework for various notions of `relation' on domains and for actions of domain constructors on relations. Freyd's analysis of recursive types in terms of a property of mixed initiality/finality is transferred to a corresponding property of invariant relations. The existence of invariant relations is proved under completeness assumptions about the notion of relation. We show how this leads to simpler proofs of the computational adequacy of denotational semantics for functional programming languages with userdeclared datatypes. We show how the initiality/finality property of invariant relations can be specialized to yield an induction principle for admissible subsets of recursively defined domains, generalizing the principle of structural induction for inductively defined sets. We also show how the initiality /finality property gives rise to the coinduct...
The origins of structural operational semantics
 Journal of Logic and Algebraic Programming
, 2004
"... We review the origins of structural operational semantics. The main publication ‘A Structural Approach to Operational Semantics, ’ also known as the ‘Aarhus Notes, ’ appeared in 1981 [G.D. Plotkin, A structural approach to operational semantics, DAIMI FN19, Computer Science Department, Aarhus Unive ..."
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Cited by 64 (0 self)
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We review the origins of structural operational semantics. The main publication ‘A Structural Approach to Operational Semantics, ’ also known as the ‘Aarhus Notes, ’ appeared in 1981 [G.D. Plotkin, A structural approach to operational semantics, DAIMI FN19, Computer Science Department, Aarhus University, 1981]. The development of the ideas dates back to the early 1970s, involving many people and building on previous work on programming languages and logic. The former included abstract syntax, the SECD machine, and the abstract interpreting machines of the Vienna school; the latter included the λcalculus and formal systems. The initial development of structural operational semantics was for simple functional languages, more or less variations of the λcalculus; after that the ideas were gradually extended to include languages with parallel features, such as Milner’s CCS. This experience set the ground for a more systematic exposition, the subject of an invited course of lectures at Aarhus University; some of these appeared in print as the 1981 Notes. We discuss the content of these lectures and some related considerations such as ‘small state’ versus ‘grand state, ’ structural versus compositional semantics, the influence of the Scott–Strachey approach to denotational semantics, the treatment of recursion and jumps, and static semantics. We next discuss relations with other work and some immediate further development. We conclude with an account of an old, previously unpublished, idea: an alternative, perhaps more readable, graphical presentation of systems of rules for operational semantics.
Intersection Type Assignment Systems
 THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1995
"... This paper gives an overview of intersection type assignment for the Lambda Calculus, as well as compare in detail variants that have been defined in the past. It presents the essential intersection type assignment system, that will prove to be as powerful as the wellknown BCDsystem. It is essenti ..."
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Cited by 62 (34 self)
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This paper gives an overview of intersection type assignment for the Lambda Calculus, as well as compare in detail variants that have been defined in the past. It presents the essential intersection type assignment system, that will prove to be as powerful as the wellknown BCDsystem. It is essential in the following sense: it is an almost syntax directed system that satisfies all major properties of the BCDsystem, and the types used are the representatives of equivalence classes of types in the BCDsystem. The set of typeable terms can be characterized in the same way, the system is complete with respect to the simple type semantics, and it has the principal type property.
A Proof of the ChurchRosser Theorem and its Representation in a Logical Framework
, 1992
"... We give a detailed, informal proof of the ChurchRosser property for the untyped lambdacalculus and show its representation in LF. The proof is due to Tait and MartinLöf and is based on the notion of parallel reduction. The representation employs higherorder abstract syntax and the judgmentsast ..."
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Cited by 36 (8 self)
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We give a detailed, informal proof of the ChurchRosser property for the untyped lambdacalculus and show its representation in LF. The proof is due to Tait and MartinLöf and is based on the notion of parallel reduction. The representation employs higherorder abstract syntax and the judgmentsastypes principle and takes advantage of term reconstruction as it is provided in the Elf implementation of LF. Proofs of metatheorems are represented as higherlevel judgments which relate sequences of reductions and conversions.
Two semantic models of objectoriented languages
 Theoretical Aspects of ObjectOriented Programming. MIT
, 1994
"... We present and compare two models of objectoriented languages. The first we call the closure model because it uses closures to encapsulate side effects on objects, and accordingly makes the operations on an object a part of that object. It is shown that this denotational framework is adequate to ex ..."
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Cited by 35 (1 self)
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We present and compare two models of objectoriented languages. The first we call the closure model because it uses closures to encapsulate side effects on objects, and accordingly makes the operations on an object a part of that object. It is shown that this denotational framework is adequate to explain classes, instantiation, and inheritance in the style of Simula as well as Smalltalk–80. The second we call the data structure model because it mimics the implementations of data structure languages like CLU in representing objects by records of instance variables, while keeping the operations on objects separate from the objects themselves. This yields a model which is very simple, at least superficially. Both the models are presented by way of a sequence of languages, culminating in a language with Smalltalk–80style inheritance. The mathematical relationship between them is then discussed and it is shown that the models give equivalent results. It will emerge from this discussion that more appropriate names for the two models might be the fixedpoint model and the selfapplication model. 1
Games and full abstraction for nondeterministic languages
, 1999
"... Abstract Nondeterminism is a pervasive phenomenon in computation. Often it arises as an emergent property of a complex system, typically as the result of contention for access to shared resources. In such circumstances, we cannot always know, in advance, exactly what will happen. In other circumstan ..."
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Cited by 31 (3 self)
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Abstract Nondeterminism is a pervasive phenomenon in computation. Often it arises as an emergent property of a complex system, typically as the result of contention for access to shared resources. In such circumstances, we cannot always know, in advance, exactly what will happen. In other circumstances, nondeterminism is explicitly introduced as a means of abstracting away from implementation details such as precise command scheduling and control flow. However, the kind of behaviours exhibited by nondeterministic computations can be extremely subtle in comparison to those of their deterministic counterparts and reasoning about such programs is notoriously tricky as a result. It is therefore important to develop semantic tools to improve our understanding of, and aid our reasoning about, such nondeterministic programs. In this thesis, we extend the framework of game semantics to encompass nondeterministic computation. Game semantics is a relatively recent development in denotational semantics; its main novelty is that it views a computation not as a static entity, but rather as a dynamic process of interaction. This perspective makes the theory wellsuited to modelling many aspects of computational processes: the original use of game semantics in modelling the simple functional language PCF has subsequently been extended to handle more complex control structures such as references and continuations.
Correspondence between Operational and Denotational Semantics
 Handbook of Logic in Computer Science
, 1995
"... This course introduces the operational and denotational semantics of PCF and examines the relationship between the two. Topics: Syntax and operational semantics of PCF, Activity Lemma, undefinability of parallel or; Context Lemma (first principles proof) and proof by logical relations Denotational ..."
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Cited by 23 (0 self)
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This course introduces the operational and denotational semantics of PCF and examines the relationship between the two. Topics: Syntax and operational semantics of PCF, Activity Lemma, undefinability of parallel or; Context Lemma (first principles proof) and proof by logical relations Denotational semantics of PCF induced by an interpretation; (standard) Scott model, adequacy, weak adequacy and its proof (by a computability predicate) Domain Theory up to SFP and Scott domains; non full abstraction of the standard model, definability of compact elements and full abstraction for PCFP (PCF + parallel or), properties of orderextensional (continuous) models of PCF, Milner's model and Mulmuley's construction (excluding proofs) Additional topics (time permitting): results on pure simplytyped lambda calculus, Friedman 's Completeness Theorem, minimal model, logical relations and definability, undecidability of lambda definability (excluding proof), dIdomains and stable functions Homepa...
Semantic Types: A Fresh Look at the Ideal Model for Types
, 2004
"... We present a generalization of the ideal model for recursive polymorphic types. Types are defined as sets of terms instead of sets of elements of a semantic domain. Our proof of the existence of types (computed by fixpoint of a typing operator) does not rely on metric properties, but on the fact tha ..."
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Cited by 23 (2 self)
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We present a generalization of the ideal model for recursive polymorphic types. Types are defined as sets of terms instead of sets of elements of a semantic domain. Our proof of the existence of types (computed by fixpoint of a typing operator) does not rely on metric properties, but on the fact that the identity is the limit of a sequence of projection terms. This establishes a connection with the work of Pitts on relational properties of domains. This also suggests that ideals are better understood as closed sets of terms defined by orthogonality with respect to a set of contexts.
Strong Stability and the Incompleteness of Stable Models for λCalculus
 ANNALS OF PURE AND APPLIED LOGIC
, 1999
"... We prove that the class of stable models is incomplete with respect to pure λcalculus. More precisely, we show that no stable model has the same theory as the strongly stable version of Park's model. This incompleteness proof can be adapted to the continuous case, giving an incompleteness proof for ..."
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Cited by 20 (0 self)
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We prove that the class of stable models is incomplete with respect to pure λcalculus. More precisely, we show that no stable model has the same theory as the strongly stable version of Park's model. This incompleteness proof can be adapted to the continuous case, giving an incompleteness proof for this case which is much simpler than the original proof by Honsell an Ronchi della Rocca. Moreover, we isolate a very simple finite set, F , of equations and inequations, which has neither a stable nor a continuous model, and which is included in Th(P fs ) and in T