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Modular structural operational semantics
, 2004
"... Modular SOS (MSOS) is a variant of conventional Structural Operational Semantics (SOS). Using MSOS, the transition rules for each construct of a programming language can be given incrementally, once and for all, and do not need reformulation when further constructs are added to the language. MSOS th ..."
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Cited by 76 (8 self)
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Modular SOS (MSOS) is a variant of conventional Structural Operational Semantics (SOS). Using MSOS, the transition rules for each construct of a programming language can be given incrementally, once and for all, and do not need reformulation when further constructs are added to the language. MSOS thus provides an exceptionally high degree of modularity in language descriptions, removing a shortcoming of the original SOS framework. After sketching the background and reviewing the main features of SOS, the paper explains the crucial differences between SOS and MSOS, and illustrates how MSOS descriptions are written. It also discusses standard notions of semantic equivalence based on MSOS. Appendix A shows how the illustrative MSOS rules given in the paper would be formulated in conventional SOS.
A semantics for procedure local heaps and its abstractions
 In POPL
, 2005
"... The goal of this work is to develop compiletime algorithms for automatically verifying properties of imperative programs that manipulate dynamically allocated storage. The paper presents an analysis method that uses a characterization of a procedure’s behavior in which parts of the heap not relevan ..."
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Cited by 71 (11 self)
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The goal of this work is to develop compiletime algorithms for automatically verifying properties of imperative programs that manipulate dynamically allocated storage. The paper presents an analysis method that uses a characterization of a procedure’s behavior in which parts of the heap not relevant to the procedure are ignored. The paper has two main parts: The first part introduces a nonstandard concrete semantics, LSL, in which called procedures are only passed parts of the heap. In this semantics, objects are treated specially when they separate the “local heap ” that can be mutated by a procedure from the rest of the heap, which—from the viewpoint of that procedure—is nonaccessible and immutable. The second part concerns abstract interpretation of LSL and develops a new staticanalysis algorithm using canonical abstraction. 1.
A Hardware Implementation of Pure Esterel
 ACADEMY PROCEEDINGS IN ENGINEERING SCIENCES, INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, SADHANA
, 1991
"... Esterel is a synchronous concurrent programming language dedicated to reactive systems (controllers, protocols, manmachine interfaces, etc.). Esterel has an efficient standard software implementation based on welldefined mathematical semantics. We present a new hardware implementation of the pure ..."
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Cited by 70 (3 self)
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Esterel is a synchronous concurrent programming language dedicated to reactive systems (controllers, protocols, manmachine interfaces, etc.). Esterel has an efficient standard software implementation based on welldefined mathematical semantics. We present a new hardware implementation of the pure synchronization subset of the language. Each program generates a specific circuit that responds to any input in one clock cycle. When the source program satisfies some statically checkable dynamic properties, the circuit is shown to be semantically equivalent to the source program. The hardware translation has been effectively implemented on the programmable active memory Perle0 developed by J. Vuillemin and his group at Digital Equipment.
From operational semantics to abstract machines
 Mathematical Structures in Computer Science
, 1992
"... We consider the problem of mechanically constructing abstract machines from operational semantics, producing intermediatelevel specifications of evaluators guaranteed to be correct with respect to the operational semantics. We construct these machines by repeatedly applying correctnesspreserving t ..."
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Cited by 66 (6 self)
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We consider the problem of mechanically constructing abstract machines from operational semantics, producing intermediatelevel specifications of evaluators guaranteed to be correct with respect to the operational semantics. We construct these machines by repeatedly applying correctnesspreserving transformations to operational semantics until the resulting specifications have the form of abstract machines. Though not automatable in general, this approach to constructing machine implementations can be mechanized, providing machineverified correctness proofs. As examples we present the transformation of specifications for both callbyname and callbyvalue evaluation of the untyped λcalculus into abstract machines that implement such evaluation strategies. We also present extensions to the callbyvalue machine for a language containing constructs for recursion, conditionals, concrete data types, and builtin functions. In all cases, the correctness of the derived abstract machines follows from the (generally transparent) correctness of the initial operational semantic specification and the correctness of the transformations applied. 1.
Explaining Type Inference
 Science of Computer Programming
, 1995
"... Type inference is the compiletime process of reconstructing missing type information in a program based on the usage of its variables. ML and Haskell are two languages where this aspect of compilation has enjoyed some popularity, allowing type information to be omitted while static type checking is ..."
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Cited by 60 (0 self)
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Type inference is the compiletime process of reconstructing missing type information in a program based on the usage of its variables. ML and Haskell are two languages where this aspect of compilation has enjoyed some popularity, allowing type information to be omitted while static type checking is still performed. Type inference may be expected to have some application in the prototyping and scripting languages which are becoming increasingly popular. A difficulty with type inference is the confusing and sometimes counterintuitive diagnostics produced by the type checker as a result of type errors. A modification of the HindleyMilner type inference algorithm is presented, which allows the specific reasoning which led to a program variable having a particular type to be recorded for type explanation. This approach is close to the intuitive process used in practice for debugging type errors. 1 Introduction Type inference refers to the compiletime process of reconstructing missing t...
Automatabased Confidentiality Monitoring
 In ASIAN’06: the 11th Asian Computing Science Conference on Secure Software
, 2006
"... Abstract Noninterference is typically used as a baseline security policy to formalize confidentiality of secret information manipulated by a program. In contrast to static checking of noninterference, this paper considers dynamic, automatonbased, monitoring of information flow for a single execut ..."
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Cited by 59 (7 self)
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Abstract Noninterference is typically used as a baseline security policy to formalize confidentiality of secret information manipulated by a program. In contrast to static checking of noninterference, this paper considers dynamic, automatonbased, monitoring of information flow for a single execution of a sequential program. The monitoring mechanism is based on a combination of dynamic and static analyses. During program execution, abstractions of program events are sent to the automaton, which uses the abstractions to track information flows and to control the execution by forbidding or editing dangerous actions. The mechanism proposed is proved to be sound, to preserve executions of welltyped programs (in the security type system of Volpano, Smith and Irvine), and to preserve some safe executions of illtyped programs. 1
Complexity Analysis for a Lazy HigherOrder Language
 In Proceedings of the 3rd European Symposium on Programming
, 1990
"... This paper is concerned with the timeanalysis of functional programs. Techniques which enable us to reason formally about a program's execution costs have had relatively little attention in the study of functional programming. We concentrate here on the construction of equations which compu ..."
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Cited by 54 (2 self)
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This paper is concerned with the timeanalysis of functional programs. Techniques which enable us to reason formally about a program's execution costs have had relatively little attention in the study of functional programming. We concentrate here on the construction of equations which compute the timecomplexity of expressions in a lazy higherorder language. The problem with higherorder functions is that complexity is dependent on the cost of applying functional parameters. Structures called costclosures are introduced to allow us to model both functional parameters and the cost of their application. The problem with laziness is that complexity is dependent on context. Projections are used to characterise the context in which an expression is evaluated, and costequations are parameterised by this contextdescription to give a compositional timeanalysis. Using this form of context information we introduce two types of timeequation: sufficienttime equations and nece...
Semantic Essence of AsmL
, 2004
"... The Abstract State Machine Language, AsmL, is a novel executable specification language based on the theory of Abstract State Machines. AsmL is objectoriented, provides highlevel mathematical datastructures, and is built around the notion of synchronous updates and finite choice. AsmL is full ..."
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Cited by 45 (5 self)
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The Abstract State Machine Language, AsmL, is a novel executable specification language based on the theory of Abstract State Machines. AsmL is objectoriented, provides highlevel mathematical datastructures, and is built around the notion of synchronous updates and finite choice. AsmL is fully integrated into the .NET framework and Microsoft development tools. In this paper, we explain the design rationale of AsmL and provide static and dynamic semantics for a kernel of the language.
Natural Semantics and Some of its MetaTheory in Elf
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON EXTENSIONS OF LOGIC PROGRAMMING
, 1991
"... Operational semantics provide a simple, highlevel and elegant means of specifying interpreters for programming languages. In natural semantics, a form of operational semantics, programs are traditionally represented as firstorder tree structures and reasoned about using natural deductionlike meth ..."
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Cited by 44 (14 self)
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Operational semantics provide a simple, highlevel and elegant means of specifying interpreters for programming languages. In natural semantics, a form of operational semantics, programs are traditionally represented as firstorder tree structures and reasoned about using natural deductionlike methods. Hannan and Miller combined these methods with higherorder representations using Prolog. In this paper we go one step further and investigate the use of the logic programming language Elf to represent natural semantics. Because Elf is based on the LF Logical Framework with dependent types, it is possible to write programs that reason about their own partial correctness. We illustrate these techniques by giving type checking rules and operational semantics for MiniML, a small functional language based on a simply typed calculus with polymorphism, constants, products, conditionals, and recursive function definitions. We also partially internalize proofs for some metatheoretic properti...
From Polyvariant Flow Information to Intersection and Union Types
 J. FUNCT. PROGRAMMING
, 1998
"... Many polyvariant program analyses have been studied in the 1990s, including kCFA, polymorphic splitting, and the cartesian product algorithm. The idea of polyvariance is to analyze functions more than once and thereby obtain better precision for each call site. In this paper we present an equivalen ..."
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Cited by 43 (7 self)
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Many polyvariant program analyses have been studied in the 1990s, including kCFA, polymorphic splitting, and the cartesian product algorithm. The idea of polyvariance is to analyze functions more than once and thereby obtain better precision for each call site. In this paper we present an equivalence theorem which relates a coinductively defined family of polyvariant ow analyses and a standard type system. The proof embodies a way of understanding polyvariant flow information in terms of union and intersection types, and, conversely, a way of understanding union and intersection types in terms of polyvariant flow information. We use the theorem as basis for a new flowtype system in the spirit of the CIL calculus of Wells, Dimock, Muller, and Turbak, in which types are annotated with flow information. A flowtype system is useful as an interface between a owanalysis algorithm and a program optimizer. Derived systematically via our equivalence theorem, our flowtype system should be a g...