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16
Simple unificationbased type inference for GADTs
, 2006
"... Generalized algebraic data types (GADTs), sometimes known as “guarded recursive data types ” or “firstclass phantom types”, are a simple but powerful generalization of the data types of Haskell and ML. Recent works have given compelling examples of the utility of GADTs, although type inference is k ..."
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Cited by 158 (34 self)
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Generalized algebraic data types (GADTs), sometimes known as “guarded recursive data types ” or “firstclass phantom types”, are a simple but powerful generalization of the data types of Haskell and ML. Recent works have given compelling examples of the utility of GADTs, although type inference is known to be difficult. Our contribution is to show how to exploit programmersupplied type annotations to make the type inference task almost embarrassingly easy. Our main technical innovation is wobbly types, which express in a declarative way the uncertainty caused by the incremental nature of typical typeinference algorithms.
PolyAML: A polymorphic aspectoriented functional programming language (Extended Version)
, 2005
"... ..."
A constraintbased approach to guarded algebraic data types
 ACM Trans. Prog. Languages Systems
, 2007
"... We study HMG(X), an extension of the constraintbased type system HM(X) with deep pattern matching, polymorphic recursion, and guarded algebraic data types. Guarded algebraic data types subsume the concepts known in the literature as indexed types, guarded recursive datatype constructors, (firstcla ..."
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Cited by 24 (0 self)
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We study HMG(X), an extension of the constraintbased type system HM(X) with deep pattern matching, polymorphic recursion, and guarded algebraic data types. Guarded algebraic data types subsume the concepts known in the literature as indexed types, guarded recursive datatype constructors, (firstclass) phantom types, and equality qualified types, and are closely related to inductive types. Their characteristic property is to allow every branch of a case construct to be typechecked under different assumptions about the type variables in scope. We prove that HMG(X) is sound and that, provided recursive definitions carry a type annotation, type inference can be reduced to constraint solving. Constraint solving is decidable, at least for some instances of X, but prohibitively expensive. Effective type inference for guarded algebraic data types is left as an issue for future research.
Pointwise Generalized Algebraic Data Types
, 2010
"... In the GADT (Generalized Algebraic Data Types) type system, a patternmatching branch can draw type information from both the scrutinee type and the data constructor type. Even though the type system can handle complex interactions between the two types, most programs require only simple interaction ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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In the GADT (Generalized Algebraic Data Types) type system, a patternmatching branch can draw type information from both the scrutinee type and the data constructor type. Even though the type system can handle complex interactions between the two types, most programs require only simple interactions in the form of parametric instantiation and type indexing. To explore the tradeoffs related to GADT patterns, we define the Pointwise GADT type system, which restricts GADTs to the common case of parametric instantiation and type indexing. The Pointwise GADT type system still accepts a wide range of GADT programs, while rejecting a pathological function whose patternmatching branches can make arbitrarily different assumptions about the type environment. We also state and prove several properties of the type system, which we speculate might be useful in helping researchers design better type inference algorithms.
Concoqtion: Mixing dependent types and HindleyMilner type inference (extended version
, 2006
"... This paper addresses the question of how to extend OCaml’s HindleyMilner type system with types indexed by logical propositions and proofs of the Coq theorem prover, thereby providing an expressive and extensible mechanism for ensuring finegrained program invariants. We propose adopting the approa ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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This paper addresses the question of how to extend OCaml’s HindleyMilner type system with types indexed by logical propositions and proofs of the Coq theorem prover, thereby providing an expressive and extensible mechanism for ensuring finegrained program invariants. We propose adopting the approached used by Shao et al. for certified binaries. This approach maintains a phase distinction between the computational and logical languages, thereby limiting effects and nontermination to the computational language, and maintaining the decidability of the type system. The extension subsumes language features such as impredicative firstclass (higherrank) polymorphism and type operators, that are notoriously difficult to integrate with the HindleyMilner style of type inference that is used in OCaml. We make the observation that these features can be more easily integrated with type inference if the inference algorithm is free to adapt the order in which it solves typing constraints to each program. To this end we define a novel “orderfree ” type inference algorithm. The key enabling technology is a graph representation of constraints and a constraint solver that performs HindleyMilner inference with just three graph rewrite rules. 1
Practical Type Inference for the GADT Type System
, 2010
"... Generalized algebraic data types (GADTs) are a type system extension to algebraic data types that allows the type of an algebraic data value to vary with its shape. The GADT type system allows programmers to express detailed program properties as types (for example, that a function should return a l ..."
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Generalized algebraic data types (GADTs) are a type system extension to algebraic data types that allows the type of an algebraic data value to vary with its shape. The GADT type system allows programmers to express detailed program properties as types (for example, that a function should return a list of the same length as its input), and a generalpurpose type checker will automatically check those properties at compile time. Type inference for the GADT type system and the properties of the type system are both currently areas of active research. In this dissertation, I attack both problems simultaneously by exploiting the symbiosis between type system research and type inference research. Deficiencies of GADT type inference algorithms motivate research on specific aspects of the type system, and discoveries about the type system bring in new insights that lead to improved GADT type inference algorithms. The technical contributions of this dissertation are therefore twofold: in addition to new GADT type system properties (such as the prevalence of pointwise type information flow in GADT patterns, a generalized notion of existential types, and the effects of enforcing the GADT branch reachability requirement), I will also present a new GADT type inference algorithm that is significantly more powerful than existing algorithms. These contributions should help programmers use the GADT type system more effectively, and they should also enable language implementers to provide better support for the GADT type system.
Stratified Type Inference For Generalized Algebraic Data Types
"... We offer a solution to the type inference problem for an extension of Hindley and Milner’s type system with generalized algebraic data types. Our approach is in two strata. The bottom stratum is a core language that marries type inference in the style of Hindley and Milner with type checking for gen ..."
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We offer a solution to the type inference problem for an extension of Hindley and Milner’s type system with generalized algebraic data types. Our approach is in two strata. The bottom stratum is a core language that marries type inference in the style of Hindley and Milner with type checking for generalized algebraic data types. This results in an extremely simple specification, where case constructs must carry an explicit type annotation and type conversions must be made explicit. The top stratum consists of (two variants of) an independent shape inference algorithm. This algorithm accepts a source term that contains some explicit type information, propagates this information in a local, predictable way, and produces a new source term that carries more explicit type information. It can be viewed as a preprocessor that helps produce some of the type annotations required by the bottom stratum. It is proven sound in the sense that it never inserts annotations that could contradict the type derivation that the programmer has in mind.
Abstract PolyAML: A Polymorphic Aspectoriented Functional Programming Language
"... This paper defines PolyAML, a typed functional, aspectoriented programming language. The main contribution of PolyAML is the seamless integration of polymorphism, runtime type analysis and aspectoriented programming language features. In particular, PolyAML allows programmers to define typesafe ..."
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This paper defines PolyAML, a typed functional, aspectoriented programming language. The main contribution of PolyAML is the seamless integration of polymorphism, runtime type analysis and aspectoriented programming language features. In particular, PolyAML allows programmers to define typesafe polymorphic advice using pointcuts constructed from a collection of polymorphic join points. PolyAML also comes equipped with a type inference algorithm that conservatively extends HindleyMilner type inference. To support firstclass polymorphic pointcut designators, a crucial feature for developing aspectoriented profiling or logging libraries, the algorithm blends the conventional HindleyMilner type inference algorithm with a simple form of local type inference. We give our language operational meaning via a typedirected translation into an expressive typesafe intermediate language. Many complexities of the source language are eliminated in this translation, leading to a modular specification of its semantics. One of the novelties of the intermediate language is the definition of polymorphic labels for marking controlflow points. These labels are organized in a tree structure such that a parent in the tree serves as a representative for all of its children. Type safety requires that the type of each child is less polymorphic than its parent type. Similarly, when a set of labels is assembled as a pointcut, the type of each label is an instance of the type of the pointcut.
Abstract Concoqtion: Mixing Indexed Types and HindleyMilner Type Inference
"... This paper addresses the question of how to extend OCaml’s HindleyMilner type system with types indexed by logical propositions and proofs of the Coq theorem prover, thereby providing an expressive and extensible mechanism for ensuring finegrained program invariants. We propose adopting the approa ..."
Abstract
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This paper addresses the question of how to extend OCaml’s HindleyMilner type system with types indexed by logical propositions and proofs of the Coq theorem prover, thereby providing an expressive and extensible mechanism for ensuring finegrained program invariants. We propose adopting the approached used by Shao et al. for certified binaries. This approach maintains a phase distinction between the computational and logical languages, thereby limiting effects and nontermination to the computational language, and maintaining the decidability of the type system. The extension subsumes language features such as impredicative firstclass (higherrank) polymorphism and type operators, that are notoriously difficult to integrate with the HindleyMilner style of type inference that is used in OCaml. We make the observation that these features can be more easily integrated with type inference if the inference algorithm is free to adapt the order in which it solves typing constraints to each program. To this end we define a novel “orderfree ” type inference algorithm. The key enabling technology is a graph representation of constraints and a constraint solver that performs HindleyMilner inference with just three graph rewrite rules.