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Braess' Paradox in a Loss Network
, 1995
"... Braess' paradox is said to occur in a network if the addition of an extra link leads to worse performance. It has been shown to occur in transportation networks (such as road networks) and also in queueing networks. Here, we show that it can occur in loss networks. ..."
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Braess' paradox is said to occur in a network if the addition of an extra link leads to worse performance. It has been shown to occur in transportation networks (such as road networks) and also in queueing networks. Here, we show that it can occur in loss networks.
Heuristic search strategies to solve . . .
, 1997
"... In the highway system, the primary two classes of users passenger cars and trucks, have decent difference in sizes and operation characteristics, while sharing the same roadways, as raising the issue of highway safety and efficiency. Transportation network design problem provides solution of the pr ..."
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In the highway system, the primary two classes of users passenger cars and trucks, have decent difference in sizes and operation characteristics, while sharing the same roadways, as raising the issue of highway safety and efficiency. Transportation network design problem provides solution of the project selections of transportation network capital investment. The topic of this study is that in a highway system, with capital investment budget constraint, how to select the links to be expanded by an extra lane and which one of the three types of traffic operationsexclusively passenger car, exclusively truck, and both passenger cars and trucks, allowed in the new lane, such that the network total travel time would be minimized, while both passenger cars and trucks compile with user equilibrium traffic assignment rule. The problem is formulated as NP hard combinatorial nonlinear integer programming problem. The classical branch and bound methodology for the integer programming problem is very inefficient in this particular computationally hard problem imposed by rather slow two classes of users traffic assignment. A heuristics
ATIS at Rush Hour: Adaptation and Departure Time Coordination in Iterated Commuting
, 1997
"... Morning commuters adjust their departure times in response to daytoday changes in congestion. Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) may enable motorists to employ fundamentally new strategies when adapting their departure times to fluctuations in congestion. At the same time, new driver ..."
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Morning commuters adjust their departure times in response to daytoday changes in congestion. Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) may enable motorists to employ fundamentally new strategies when adapting their departure times to fluctuations in congestion. At the same time, new driver strategies will likely give rise to different road network behaviors. This paper explores the mutual feedback between driver strategy and traffic system performance through a simulation model of rush hour commuting. Motorists in this model choose departure times according to three adaptive strategies. When commuters apply adaptive strategies that require ATIS in the present model, outcomes for both individual motorists and the system as a whole are by several measures worse than when drivers use a simple strategy that does not require ATIS. These results largely agree with an earlier study of a nearly identical model of rushhour commuting. This document is available in HTML on the ...
A heuristic methodology to tackle the Braess Paradox detecting problem tailored for real road networks
, 2013
"... Adding a new road to help traffic flow in a congested urban network may at first appear to be a good idea. The Braess Paradox (BP) says, adding new capacity may actually worsen traffic flow. BP does not only call for extra vigilance in expanding a network, it also highlights a question: Does BP exis ..."
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Adding a new road to help traffic flow in a congested urban network may at first appear to be a good idea. The Braess Paradox (BP) says, adding new capacity may actually worsen traffic flow. BP does not only call for extra vigilance in expanding a network, it also highlights a question: Does BP exist in existing networks? Literature reveals that BP is rife in real world. This study proposes a methodology to find a set of roads in a real network, whose closure improve traffic flow. It is called the Braess Paradox Detection (BPD) problem. Literature proves that the BPD problem is highly intractable especially in real networks and no efficient method has been introduced. We developed a heuristic methodology based on a Genetic Algorithm to tackle BPD problem. First, a set of likely Braesstainted roads is identified by simply testing their closure (onebyone). Secondly, a seraph algorithm is devised to run over the Braesstainted roads to find a combination whose closure improves traffic flow. In our methodology, the extent of road closure is limited to some certain level to preserve connectivity of the network. The efficiency and applicability of the methodology are demonstrated using the benchmark Hagstromâ€“Abrams network, and on a network of city of Winnipeg in Canada.
Can Braess's Paradox occur in Loss Networks?
, 1994
"... Braess's paradox is said to occur in a network if the addition of an extra link leads to worse performance. It has been shown to occur in transportation networks (such as road networks) and also in queueing networks. Here, we consider the question of whether it can occur in loss networks. We co ..."
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Braess's paradox is said to occur in a network if the addition of an extra link leads to worse performance. It has been shown to occur in transportation networks (such as road networks) and also in queueing networks. Here, we consider the question of whether it can occur in loss networks. We consider two performance measures, acceptance probability and surplus values, and conclude that Braess's paradox can occur under both measures. Further, we show that the Erlang fixed point approximation can not always detect the paradox even when the performance degradation is highly significant. Loss Networks; Braess's Paradox; Acceptance Probabilities; Erlang Fixed Point; Surplus Values AMS 1991 Mathematics Subject Classification : Primary 60K30 Secondary 68M20 90B12 1 Introduction Consider a simple road network with one origindestination pair and two routes. Let the users choose their route so as to minimise their expected delay. The effect is that all users travelling between a given origin an...