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FastSLAM: A Factored Solution to the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Problem
 In Proceedings of the AAAI National Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 2002
"... The ability to simultaneously localize a robot and accurately map its surroundings is considered by many to be a key prerequisite of truly autonomous robots. However, few approaches to this problem scale up to handle the very large number of landmarks present in real environments. Kalman filterbase ..."
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Cited by 481 (9 self)
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The ability to simultaneously localize a robot and accurately map its surroundings is considered by many to be a key prerequisite of truly autonomous robots. However, few approaches to this problem scale up to handle the very large number of landmarks present in real environments. Kalman filterbased algorithms, for example, require time quadratic in the number of landmarks to incorporate each sensor observation. This paper presents FastSLAM, an algorithm that recursively estimates the full posterior distribution over robot pose and landmark locations, yet scales logarithmically with the number of landmarks in the map. This algorithm is based on a factorization of the posterior into a product of conditional landmark distributions and a distribution over robot paths. The algorithm has been run successfully on as many as 50,000 landmarks, environments far beyond the reach of previous approaches. Experimental results demonstrate the advantages and limitations of the FastSLAM algorithm on both simulated and realworld data.
Realtime simultaneous localisation and mapping with a single camera
, 2003
"... Egomotion estimation for an agile single camera moving through general, unknown scenes becomes a much more challenging problem when realtime performance is required rather than under the offline processing conditions under which most successful structure from motion work has been achieved. This t ..."
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Cited by 335 (21 self)
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Egomotion estimation for an agile single camera moving through general, unknown scenes becomes a much more challenging problem when realtime performance is required rather than under the offline processing conditions under which most successful structure from motion work has been achieved. This task of estimating camera motion from measurements of a continuously expanding set of selfmapped visual features is one of a class of problems known as Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) in the robotics community, and we argue that such realtime mapping research, despite rarely being camerabased, is more relevant here than offline structure from motion methods due to the more fundamental emphasis placed on propagation of uncertainty. We present a topdown Bayesian framework for singlecamera localisation via mapping of a sparse set of natural features using motion modelling and an informationguided active measurement strategy, in particular addressing the difficult issue of realtime feature initialisation via a factored sampling approach. Realtime handling of uncertainty permits robust localisation via the creating and active measurement of a sparse map of landmarks such that regions can be revisited after periods of neglect and localisation can continue through periods when few features are visible. Results are presented of realtime localisation for a handwaved camera with very sparse prior scene knowledge and all processing carried out on a desktop PC. 1
Robotic mapping: A survey
 Exploring Artificial Intelligence in the New Millenium
"... This article provides a comprehensive introduction into the field of robotic mapping, with a focus on indoor mapping. It describes and compares various probabilistic techniques, as they are presently being applied to a vast array of mobile robot mapping problems. The history of robotic mapping is al ..."
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Cited by 310 (9 self)
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This article provides a comprehensive introduction into the field of robotic mapping, with a focus on indoor mapping. It describes and compares various probabilistic techniques, as they are presently being applied to a vast array of mobile robot mapping problems. The history of robotic mapping is also described, along with an extensive list of open research problems.
Mobile Robot Localization and Mapping with Uncertainty using ScaleInvariant Visual Landmarks
, 2002
"... A key component of a mobile robot system is the ability to localize itself accurately and, simultaneously, to build a map of the environment. Most of the existing algorithms are based on laser range finders, sonar sensors or artificial landmarks. In this paper, we describe a visionbased mobile robo ..."
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Cited by 223 (11 self)
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A key component of a mobile robot system is the ability to localize itself accurately and, simultaneously, to build a map of the environment. Most of the existing algorithms are based on laser range finders, sonar sensors or artificial landmarks. In this paper, we describe a visionbased mobile robot localization and mapping algorithm, which uses scaleinvariant image features as natural landmarks in unmodified environments. The invariance of these features to image translation, scaling and rotation makes them suitable landmarks for mobile robot localization and map building. With our Triclops stereo vision system, these landmarks are localized and robot egomotion is estimated by leastsquares minimization of the matched landmarks. Feature viewpoint variation and occlusion are taken into account by maintaining a view direction for each landmark. Experiments show that these visual landmarks are robustly matched, robot pose is estimated and a consistent threedimensional map is built. As image features are not noisefree, we carry out error analysis for the landmark positions and the robot pose. We use Kalman filters to track these landmarks in a dynamic environment, resulting in a database map with landmark positional uncertainty.
An Online Mapping Algorithm for Teams of Mobile Robots
 International Journal of Robotics Research
, 2001
"... We propose a new probabilistic algorithm for online mapping of unknown environments with teams of robots. At the core of the algorithm is a technique that combines fast maximum likelihood map growing with a Monte Carlo localizer that uses particle representations. The combination of both yields an o ..."
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Cited by 206 (14 self)
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We propose a new probabilistic algorithm for online mapping of unknown environments with teams of robots. At the core of the algorithm is a technique that combines fast maximum likelihood map growing with a Monte Carlo localizer that uses particle representations. The combination of both yields an online algorithm that can cope with large odometric errors typically found when mapping an environment with cycles. The algorithm can be implemented distributedly on multiple robot platforms, enabling a team of robots to cooperatively generate a single map of their environment. Finally, an extension is described for acquiring threedimensional maps, which capture the structure and visual appearance of indoor environments in 3D.
Data Association in Stochastic Mapping Using the Joint Compatibility Test
, 2001
"... In this paper, we address the problem of robust data association for simultaneous vehicle localization and map building. We show that the classical gated nearest neighbor approach, which considers each matching between sensor observations and features independently, ignores the fact that measurement ..."
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Cited by 198 (14 self)
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In this paper, we address the problem of robust data association for simultaneous vehicle localization and map building. We show that the classical gated nearest neighbor approach, which considers each matching between sensor observations and features independently, ignores the fact that measurement prediction errors are correlated. This leads to easily accepting incorrect matchings when clutter or vehicle errors increase. We propose a new measurement of the joint compatibility of a set of pairings that successfully rejects spurious matchings. We show experimentally that this restrictive criterion can be used to efficiently search for the best solution to data association. Unlike the nearest neighbor, this method provides a robust solution in complex situations, such as cluttered environments or when revisiting previously mapped regions.
Optimization of the Simultaneous Localization and Map Building Algorithm for Real Time Implementation
 IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation
, 2001
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Probabilistic Algorithms in Robotics
 AI Magazine vol
"... This article describes a methodology for programming robots known as probabilistic robotics. The probabilistic paradigm pays tribute to the inherent uncertainty in robot perception, relying on explicit representations of uncertainty when determining what to do. This article surveys some of the progr ..."
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Cited by 178 (9 self)
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This article describes a methodology for programming robots known as probabilistic robotics. The probabilistic paradigm pays tribute to the inherent uncertainty in robot perception, relying on explicit representations of uncertainty when determining what to do. This article surveys some of the progress in the field, using indepth examples to illustrate some of the nuts and bolts of the basic approach. Our central conjecture is that the probabilistic approach to robotics scales better to complex realworld applications than approaches that ignore a robot’s uncertainty. 1
FastSLAM 2.0: An improved particle filtering algorithm for simultaneous localization and mapping that provably converges
"... In [15], Montemerlo et al. proposed an algorithm called FastSLAM as an efficient and robust solution to the simultaneous localization and mapping problem. This paper describes a modified version of FastSLAM that overcomes important deficiencies of the original algorithm. We prove convergence of this ..."
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Cited by 177 (7 self)
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In [15], Montemerlo et al. proposed an algorithm called FastSLAM as an efficient and robust solution to the simultaneous localization and mapping problem. This paper describes a modified version of FastSLAM that overcomes important deficiencies of the original algorithm. We prove convergence of this new algorithm for linear SLAM problems and provide realworld experimental results that illustrate an order of magnitude improvement in accuracy over the original FastSLAM algorithm. 1
Robust mapping and localization in indoor environments using sonar data
 Int. J. Robotics Research
, 2002
"... In this paper we describe a new technique for the creation of featurebased stochastic maps using standard Polaroid sonar sensors. The fundamental contributions of our proposal are: (1) a perceptual grouping process that permits the robust identification and localization of environmental features, su ..."
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Cited by 145 (30 self)
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In this paper we describe a new technique for the creation of featurebased stochastic maps using standard Polaroid sonar sensors. The fundamental contributions of our proposal are: (1) a perceptual grouping process that permits the robust identification and localization of environmental features, such as straight segments and corners, from the sparse and noisy sonar data; (2) a map joining technique that allows the system to build a sequence of independent limitedsize stochastic maps and join them in a globally consistent way; (3) a robust mechanism to determine which features in a stochastic map correspond to the same environment feature, allowing the system to update the stochastic map accordingly, and perform tasks such as revisiting and loop closing. We demonstrate the practicality of this approach by building a geometric map of a medium size, real indoor environment, with several people moving around the robot. Maps built from laser data for the same experiment are provided for comparison. Key words