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13
Free Theorems in the Presence of seq
, 2004
"... Parametric polymorphism constrains the behavior of pure functional programs in a way that allows the derivation of interesting theorems about them solely from their types, i.e., virtually for free. Unfortunately, the standard parametricity theorem fails for nonstrict languages supporting a polymorph ..."
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Cited by 36 (12 self)
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Parametric polymorphism constrains the behavior of pure functional programs in a way that allows the derivation of interesting theorems about them solely from their types, i.e., virtually for free. Unfortunately, the standard parametricity theorem fails for nonstrict languages supporting a polymorphic strict evaluation primitive like Haskell's $\mathit{seq}$. Contrary to the folklore surrounding $\mathit{seq}$ and parametricity, we show that not even quantifying only over strict and bottomreflecting relations in the $\forall$clause of the underlying logical relation  and thus restricting the choice of functions with which such relations are instantiated to obtain free theorems to strict and total ones  is sufficient to recover from this failure. By addressing the subtle issues that arise when propagating up the type hierarchy restrictions imposed on a logical relation in order to accommodate the strictness primitive, we provide a parametricity theorem for the subset of Haskell corresponding to a GirardReynoldsstyle calculus with fixpoints, algebraic datatypes, and $\mathit{seq}$. A crucial ingredient of our approach is the use of an asymmetric logical relation, which leads to ``inequational'' versions of free theorems enriched by preconditions guaranteeing their validity in the described setting. Besides the potential to obtain corresponding preconditions for standard equational free theorems by combining some new inequational ones, the latter also have value in their own right, as is exemplified with a careful analysis of $\mathit{seq}$'s impact on familiar program transformations.
Foundations for structured programming with GADTs
 Conference record of the ACM SIGPLANSIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages
, 2008
"... GADTs are at the cutting edge of functional programming and become more widely used every day. Nevertheless, the semantic foundations underlying GADTs are not well understood. In this paper we solve this problem by showing that the standard theory of data types as carriers of initial algebras of fun ..."
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Cited by 22 (4 self)
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GADTs are at the cutting edge of functional programming and become more widely used every day. Nevertheless, the semantic foundations underlying GADTs are not well understood. In this paper we solve this problem by showing that the standard theory of data types as carriers of initial algebras of functors can be extended from algebraic and nested data types to GADTs. We then use this observation to derive an initial algebra semantics for GADTs, thus ensuring that all of the accumulated knowledge about initial algebras can be brought to bear on them. Next, we use our initial algebra semantics for GADTs to derive expressive and principled tools — analogous to the wellknown and widelyused ones for algebraic and nested data types — for reasoning about, programming with, and improving the performance of programs involving, GADTs; we christen such a collection of tools for a GADT an initial algebra package. Along the way, we give a constructive demonstration that every GADT can be reduced to one which uses only the equality GADT and existential quantification. Although other such reductions exist in the literature, ours is entirely local, is independent of any particular syntactic presentation of GADTs, and can be implemented in the host language, rather than existing solely as a metatheoretical artifact. The main technical ideas underlying our approach are (i) to modify the notion of a higherorder functor so that GADTs can be seen as carriers of initial algebras of higherorder functors, and (ii) to use left Kan extensions to trade arbitrary GADTs for simplerbutequivalent ones for which initial algebra semantics can be derived.
Monadic augment and generalised short cut fusion
 Journal of Functional Programming
, 2005
"... Monads are commonplace programming devices that are used to uniformly structure computations with effects such as state, exceptions, and I/O. This paper further develops the monadic programming paradigm by investigating the extent to which monadic computations can be optimised by using generalisatio ..."
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Cited by 15 (7 self)
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Monads are commonplace programming devices that are used to uniformly structure computations with effects such as state, exceptions, and I/O. This paper further develops the monadic programming paradigm by investigating the extent to which monadic computations can be optimised by using generalisations of short cut fusion to eliminate monadic structures whose sole purpose is to “glue together ” monadic program components. We make several contributions. First, we show that every inductive type has an associated build combinator and an associated short cut fusion rule. Second, we introduce the notion of an inductive monad to describe those monads that give rise to inductive types, and we give examples of such monads which are widely used in functional programming. Third, we generalise the standard augment combinators and cata/augment fusion rules for algebraic data types to types induced by inductive monads. This allows us to give the first cata/augment rules for some common data types, such as rose trees. Fourth, we demonstrate the practical applicability of our generalisations by providing Haskell implementations for all concepts and examples in the paper. Finally, we offer deep theoretical insights by showing that the augment combinators are monadic in nature, and thus that our cata/build and cata/augment rules are arguably the best generally applicable fusion rules obtainable.
The Impact of seq on Free TheoremsBased Program Transformations
 Fundamenta Informaticae
, 2006
"... Parametric polymorphism constrains the behavior of pure functional programs in a way that allows the derivation of interesting theorems about them solely from their types, i.e., virtually for free. Unfortunately, standard parametricity results — including socalled free theorems — fail for nonstrict ..."
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Cited by 13 (5 self)
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Parametric polymorphism constrains the behavior of pure functional programs in a way that allows the derivation of interesting theorems about them solely from their types, i.e., virtually for free. Unfortunately, standard parametricity results — including socalled free theorems — fail for nonstrict languages supporting a polymorphic strict evaluation primitive such as Haskell’s seq. A folk theorem maintains that such results hold for a subset of Haskell corresponding to a GirardReynolds calculus with fixpoints and algebraic datatypes even when seq is present provided the relations which appear in their derivations are required to be bottomreflecting and admissible. In this paper we show that this folklore is incorrect, but that parametricity results can be recovered in the presence of seq by restricting attention to leftclosed, total, and admissible relations instead. The key novelty of our approach is the asymmetry introduced by leftclosedness, which leads to “inequational” versions of standard parametricity results together with preconditions guaranteeing their validity even when seq is present. We use these results to derive criteria ensuring that both equational and inequational versions of short cut fusion and related program transformations based on free theorems hold in the presence of seq.
Initial algebra semantics is enough
 Proceedings, Typed Lambda Calculus and Applications
, 2007
"... Abstract. Initial algebra semantics is a cornerstone of the theory of modern functional programming languages. For each inductive data type, it provides a fold combinator encapsulating structured recursion over data of that type, a Church encoding, a build combinator which constructs data of that ty ..."
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Cited by 8 (5 self)
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Abstract. Initial algebra semantics is a cornerstone of the theory of modern functional programming languages. For each inductive data type, it provides a fold combinator encapsulating structured recursion over data of that type, a Church encoding, a build combinator which constructs data of that type, and a fold/build rule which optimises modular programs by eliminating intermediate data of that type. It has long been thought that initial algebra semantics is not expressive enough to provide a similar foundation for programming with nested types. Specifically, the folds have been considered too weak to capture commonly occurring patterns of recursion, and no Church encodings, build combinators, or fold/build rules have been given for nested types. This paper overturns this conventional wisdom by solving all of these problems. 1
Asymptotic Improvement of Computations over Free Monads
 In Proceedings, Mathematics of Program Construction
, 2008
"... Abstract. We present a loweffort program transformation to improve the efficiency of computations over free monads in Haskell. The development is calculational and carried out in a generic setting, thus applying to a variety of datatypes. An important aspect of our approach is the utilisation of ty ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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Abstract. We present a loweffort program transformation to improve the efficiency of computations over free monads in Haskell. The development is calculational and carried out in a generic setting, thus applying to a variety of datatypes. An important aspect of our approach is the utilisation of type class mechanisms to make the transformation as transparent as possible, requiring no restructuring of code at all. There is also no extra support necessary from the compiler (apart from an uptodate type checker). Despite this simplicity of use, our technique is able to achieve true asymptotic runtime improvements. We demonstrate this by examples for which the complexity is reduced from quadratic to linear. 1
Proving correctness via free theorems: The case of the destroy/buildrule
 IN PARTIAL EVALUATION AND PROGRAM MANIPULATION, PROCEEDINGS
, 2008
"... Free theorems feature prominently in the field of program transformation for pure functional languages such as Haskell. However, somewhat disappointingly, the semantic properties of so based transformations are often established only very superficially. This paper is intended as a case study showing ..."
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Cited by 6 (4 self)
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Free theorems feature prominently in the field of program transformation for pure functional languages such as Haskell. However, somewhat disappointingly, the semantic properties of so based transformations are often established only very superficially. This paper is intended as a case study showing how to use the existing theoretical foundations and formal methods for improving the situation. To that end, we investigate the correctness issue for a new transformation rule in the short cut fusion family. This destroy/buildrule provides a certain reconciliation between the competing foldr/build and destroy/unfoldrapproaches to eliminating intermediate lists. Our emphasis is on systematically and rigorously developing the rule’s correctness proof, even while paying attention to semantic aspects like potential nontermination and mixed strict/nonstrict evaluation.
Taming Selective Strictness
"... Abstract: Free theorems establish interesting properties of parametrically polymorphic functions, solely from their types, and serve as a nice proof tool. For pure and lazy functional programming languages, they can be used with very few preconditions. Unfortunately, in the presence of selective str ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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Abstract: Free theorems establish interesting properties of parametrically polymorphic functions, solely from their types, and serve as a nice proof tool. For pure and lazy functional programming languages, they can be used with very few preconditions. Unfortunately, in the presence of selective strictness, as provided in languages like Haskell, their original strength is reduced. In this paper we present an approach for restrengthening them. By a refined type system which tracks the use of strict evaluation, we rule out unnecessary restrictions that otherwise emerge from the general suspicion that strict evaluation may be used at any point. Additionally, we provide an implemented algorithm determining all refined types for a given term. 1
Build, augment and destroy. Universally
 In Asian Symposium on Programming Languages, Proceedings
, 2004
"... Abstract. We give a semantic footing to the fold/build syntax of programming with inductive types, covering shortcut deforestation, based on a universal property. Specifically, we give a semantics for inductive types based on limits of algebra structure forgetting functors and show that it is equiva ..."
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Cited by 4 (3 self)
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Abstract. We give a semantic footing to the fold/build syntax of programming with inductive types, covering shortcut deforestation, based on a universal property. Specifically, we give a semantics for inductive types based on limits of algebra structure forgetting functors and show that it is equivalent to the usual initial algebra semantics. We also give a similar semantic account of the augment generalization of build and of the unfold/destroy syntax of coinductive types. 1
Algebraic fusion of functions with an accumulating parameter and its improvement
 In Proc. ACM International Conference on Functional Programming
, 2006
"... We present a unifying solution to the problem of fusion of functions, where both the producer function and the consumer function have one accumulating parameter. The key idea in this development is to formulate the producer function as a function which computes over a monoid of data contexts. Upon t ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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We present a unifying solution to the problem of fusion of functions, where both the producer function and the consumer function have one accumulating parameter. The key idea in this development is to formulate the producer function as a function which computes over a monoid of data contexts. Upon this formulation, we develop a fusion method called algebraic fusion based on the elementary theory of universal algebra and monoids. The producer function is fused with a monoid homomorphism that is derived from the definition of the consumer function, and is turned into a higherorder function f that computes over the monoid of endofunctions. We then introduce a general concept called improvement, in order to reduce the cost of computing over the monoid of endofunctions (i.e., function closures). An improvement of the function f via a monoid homomorphism h is a function g that satisfies f = h ◦ g. This provides a principled way of finding a firstorder function representing a solution to the fusion problem. It also presents a clean and unifying account for varying fusion methods that have been proposed so far. Furthermore, we show that our method extends to support partial and infinite data structures, by means of an appropriate monoid structure. Categories and Subject Descriptors D.3.2 [Programming Languages]: Language Classifications—Applicative (functional) languages;