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166
Sum Capacity of a Gaussian Vector Broadcast Channel
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2002
"... This paper characterizes the sum capacity of a class of nondegraded Gaussian vectB broadcast channels where a singletransmitter with multiple transmit terminals sends independent information to multiple receivers. Coordinat+[ is allowed among the transmit teminals, but not among the different recei ..."
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Cited by 196 (22 self)
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This paper characterizes the sum capacity of a class of nondegraded Gaussian vectB broadcast channels where a singletransmitter with multiple transmit terminals sends independent information to multiple receivers. Coordinat+[ is allowed among the transmit teminals, but not among the different receivers. The sum capacity is shown t be a saddlepoint of a Gaussian mu al informat]R game, where a signal player chooses a tansmit covariance matrix to maximize the mutual information, and a noise player chooses a fictitious noise correlation to minimize the mutual information. This result holds fort he class of Gaussian channels whose saddlepoint satisfies a full rank condition. Furt her,t he sum capacity is achieved using a precoding method for Gaussian channels with additive side information noncausally known at the transmitter. The optimal precoding structure is shown t correspond to a decisionfeedback equalizer that decomposes t e broadcast channel into a series of singleuser channels with intk ference presubtract] at the transmiter.
The capacity region of the Gaussian multipleinput multipleoutput broadcast channel
 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
, 2006
"... (MIMO) broadcast channel (BC) is considered. The dirtypaper coding (DPC) rate region is shown to coincide with the capacity region. To that end, a new notion of an enhanced broadcast channel is introduced and is used jointly with the entropy power inequality, to show that a superposition of Gaussia ..."
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Cited by 154 (3 self)
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(MIMO) broadcast channel (BC) is considered. The dirtypaper coding (DPC) rate region is shown to coincide with the capacity region. To that end, a new notion of an enhanced broadcast channel is introduced and is used jointly with the entropy power inequality, to show that a superposition of Gaussian codes is optimal for the degraded vector broadcast channel and that DPC is optimal for the nondegraded case. Furthermore, the capacity region is characterized under a wide range of input constraints, accounting, as special cases, for the total power and the perantenna power constraints. Index Terms—Broadcast channel, capacity region, dirtypaper coding (DPC), enhanced channel, entropy power inequality, Minkowski’s inequality, multipleantenna. I.
Zeroforcing methods for downlink spatial multiplexing in multiuser MIMO channels
 IEEE Trans. Signal Processing
, 2004
"... Abstract—The use of spacedivision multiple access (SDMA) in the downlink of a multiuser multipleinput, multipleoutput (MIMO) wireless communications network can provide a substantial gain in system throughput. The challenge in such multiuser systems is designing transmit vectors while considering ..."
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Cited by 126 (4 self)
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Abstract—The use of spacedivision multiple access (SDMA) in the downlink of a multiuser multipleinput, multipleoutput (MIMO) wireless communications network can provide a substantial gain in system throughput. The challenge in such multiuser systems is designing transmit vectors while considering the cochannel interference of other users. Typical optimization problems of interest include the capacity problem—maximizing the sum information rate subject to a power constraint—or the power control problem—minimizing transmitted power such that a certain qualityofservice metric for each user is met. Neither of these problems possess closedform solutions for the general multiuser MIMO channel, but the imposition of certain constraints can lead to closedform solutions. This paper presents two such constrained solutions. The first, referred to as “blockdiagonalization,” is a generalization of channel inversion when there are multiple antennas at each receiver. It is easily adapted to optimize for either maximum transmission rate or minimum power and approaches the optimal solution at high SNR. The second, known as “successive optimization, ” is an alternative method for solving the power minimization problem one user at a time, and it yields superior results in some (e.g., low SNR) situations. Both of these algorithms are limited to cases where the transmitter has more antennas than all receive antennas combined. In order to accommodate more general scenarios, we also propose a framework for coordinated transmitterreceiver processing that generalizes the two algorithms to cases involving more receive than transmit antennas. While the proposed algorithms are suboptimal, they lead to simpler transmitter and receiver structures and allow for a reasonable tradeoff between performance and complexity. Index Terms—Antenna arrays, array signal processing, MIMO systems, signal design, space division multiaccess (SDMA), wireless LAN. I.
On the optimality of multiantenna broadcast scheduling using zeroforcing beamforming
 IEEE J. SELECT. AREAS COMMUN
, 2006
"... Although the capacity of multipleinput/multipleoutput (MIMO) broadcast channels (BCs) can be achieved by dirty paper coding (DPC), it is difficult to implement in practical systems. This paper investigates if, for a large number of users, simpler schemes can achieve the same performance. Specifica ..."
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Cited by 117 (4 self)
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Although the capacity of multipleinput/multipleoutput (MIMO) broadcast channels (BCs) can be achieved by dirty paper coding (DPC), it is difficult to implement in practical systems. This paper investigates if, for a large number of users, simpler schemes can achieve the same performance. Specifically, we show that a zeroforcing beamforming (ZFBF) strategy, while generally suboptimal, can achieve the same asymptotic sum capacity as that of DPC, as the number of users goes to infinity. In proving this asymptotic result, we provide an algorithm for determining which users should be active under ZFBF. These users are semiorthogonal to one another and can be grouped for simultaneous transmission to enhance the throughput of scheduling algorithms. Based on the user grouping, we propose and compare two fair scheduling schemes in roundrobin ZFBF and proportionalfair ZFBF. We provide numerical results to confirm the optimality of ZFBF and to compare the performance of ZFBF and proposed fair scheduling schemes with that of various MIMO BC strategies.
Transmitter Optimization for the MultiAntenna Downlink with PerAntenna Power Constraints
 IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
, 2007
"... Abstract—This paper considers the transmitter optimization problem for a multiuser downlink channel with multiple transmit antennas at the basestation. In contrast to the conventional sumpower constraint on the transmit antennas, this paper adopts a more realistic perantenna power constraint, bec ..."
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Cited by 52 (5 self)
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Abstract—This paper considers the transmitter optimization problem for a multiuser downlink channel with multiple transmit antennas at the basestation. In contrast to the conventional sumpower constraint on the transmit antennas, this paper adopts a more realistic perantenna power constraint, because in practical implementations each antenna is equipped with its own power amplifier and is limited individually by the linearity of the amplifier. Assuming perfect channel knowledge at the transmitter, this paper investigates two different transmission schemes under the perantenna power constraint: a minimumpower beamforming design for downlink channels with a single antenna at each remote user and a capacityachieving transmitter design for downlink channels with multiple antennas at each remote user. It is shown that in both cases, the perantenna downlink transmitter optimization problem may be transformed into a dual uplink problem with an uncertain noise. This generalizes previous uplink–downlink duality results and transforms the perantenna transmitter optimization problem into an equivalent minimax optimization problem. Further, it is shown that various notions of uplink–downlink duality may be unified under a Lagrangian duality framework. This new interpretation of duality gives rise to efficient numerical optimization techniques for solving the downlink perantenna transmitter optimization problem. Index Terms—Beamforming, broadcast channel, capacity region, dirtypaper coding, Lagrangian duality. I.
An overview of limited feedback in wireless communication systems
 IEEE J. SEL. AREAS COMMUN
, 2008
"... It is now well known that employing channel adaptive signaling in wireless communication systems can yield large improvements in almost any performance metric. Unfortunately, many kinds of channel adaptive techniques have been deemed impractical in the past because of the problem of obtaining channe ..."
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Cited by 46 (8 self)
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It is now well known that employing channel adaptive signaling in wireless communication systems can yield large improvements in almost any performance metric. Unfortunately, many kinds of channel adaptive techniques have been deemed impractical in the past because of the problem of obtaining channel knowledge at the transmitter. The transmitter in many systems (such as those using frequency division duplexing) can not leverage techniques such as training to obtain channel state information. Over the last few years, research has repeatedly shown that allowing the receiver to send a small number of information bits about the channel conditions to the transmitter can allow near optimal channel adaptation. These practical systems, which are commonly referred to as limited or finiterate feedback systems, supply benefits nearly identical to unrealizable perfect transmitter channel knowledge systems when they are judiciously designed. In this tutorial, we provide a broad look at the field of limited feedback wireless communications. We review work in systems using various combinations of single antenna, multiple antenna, narrowband, broadband, singleuser, and multiuser technology. We also provide a synopsis of the role of limited feedback in the standardization of next generation wireless systems.
Communication over mimo x channels: Interference alignment, decomposition, and performance analysis
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 2008
"... In a multipleantenna system with two transmitters and two receivers, a scenario of data communication, known as the X channel, is studied in which each receiver receives data from both transmitters. In this scenario, it is assumed that each transmitter is unaware of the other transmitter’s data (n ..."
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Cited by 46 (4 self)
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In a multipleantenna system with two transmitters and two receivers, a scenario of data communication, known as the X channel, is studied in which each receiver receives data from both transmitters. In this scenario, it is assumed that each transmitter is unaware of the other transmitter’s data (noncooperative scenario). This system can be considered as a combination of two broadcast channels (from the transmitters ’ points of view) and two multipleaccess channels (from the receivers ’ points of view). Taking advantage of both perspectives, two signaling schemes for such a scenario are developed. In these schemes, some linear filters are employed at the transmitters and at the receivers which decompose the system into either two noninterfering multipleantenna broadcast subchannels or two noninterfering multipleantenna multipleaccess subchannels. The main objective in the design of the filters is to exploit the structure of the channel matrices to achieve the
On downlink beamforming with greedy user selection: performance analysis and a simple new algorithm
 IEEE Trans. Signal Processing
, 2005
"... Abstract—This paper considers the problem of simultaneous multiuser downlink beamforming. The idea is to employ a transmit antenna array to create multiple “beams ” directed toward the individual users, and the aim is to increase throughput, measured by sum capacity. In particular, we are interested ..."
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Cited by 44 (1 self)
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Abstract—This paper considers the problem of simultaneous multiuser downlink beamforming. The idea is to employ a transmit antenna array to create multiple “beams ” directed toward the individual users, and the aim is to increase throughput, measured by sum capacity. In particular, we are interested in the practically important case of more users than transmit antennas, which requires user selection. Optimal solutions to this problem can be prohibitively complex for online implementation at the base station and entail socalled Dirty Paper (DP) precoding for known interference. Suboptimal solutions capitalize on multiuser (selection) diversity to achieve a significant fraction of sum capacity at lower complexity cost. We analyze the throughput performance in Rayleigh fading of a suboptimal greedy DPbased scheme proposed by Tu and Blum. We also propose another userselection method of the same computational complexity based on simple zeroforcing beamforming. Our results indicate that the proposed method attains a significant fraction of sum capacity and throughput of Tu and Blum’s scheme and, thus, offers an attractive alternative to DPbased schemes. Index Terms—Beamforming, downlink, multiuser diversity. I.
Optimality of zeroforcing beamforming with multiuser diversity
 in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Communications
, 2005
"... Abstract — In MIMO downlink channels, the capacity is achieved by dirty paper coding (DPC). However, DPC is difficult to implement in practical systems. This work investigates if, for a large number of users, simpler schemes can achieve the same performance. Specifically, we show that a zeroforcing ..."
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Cited by 36 (2 self)
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Abstract — In MIMO downlink channels, the capacity is achieved by dirty paper coding (DPC). However, DPC is difficult to implement in practical systems. This work investigates if, for a large number of users, simpler schemes can achieve the same performance. Specifically, we show that a zeroforcing beamforming (ZFBF) strategy, while generally suboptimal, can achieve the same asymptotic sumrate capacity as that of DPC, as the number of users goes to infinity. In proving this asymptotic result, we propose an algorithm for determining which users should be active in ZFBF transmission. These users are semiorthogonal to one another, and when fairness among users is required, can be grouped for simultaneous transmissions to enhance the throughput of fair schedulers. We provide numerical results to confirm the optimality of ZFBF and to compare its performance with that of various MIMO downlink strategies. I.
Broadcast Channels with Cooperating Decoders
, 2006
"... We consider the problem of communicating over the general discrete memoryless broadcast channel (BC) with partially cooperating receivers. In our setup, receivers are able to exchange messages over noiseless conference links of finite capacities, prior to decoding the messages sent from the transmi ..."
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Cited by 34 (2 self)
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We consider the problem of communicating over the general discrete memoryless broadcast channel (BC) with partially cooperating receivers. In our setup, receivers are able to exchange messages over noiseless conference links of finite capacities, prior to decoding the messages sent from the transmitter. In this paper we formulate the general problem of broadcast with cooperation. We first find the capacity region for the case where the BC is physically degraded. Then, we give achievability results for the general broadcast channel, for both the two independent messages case and the single common message case.