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A Stream Cipher Proposal: Grain128
 In ISIT
"... Abstract — A new stream cipher, Grain128, is proposed. The design is very small in hardware and it targets environments with very limited resources in gate count, power consumption, and chip area. Grain128 supports key size of 128 bits and IV size of 96 bits. The design is very simple and based on ..."
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Abstract — A new stream cipher, Grain128, is proposed. The design is very small in hardware and it targets environments with very limited resources in gate count, power consumption, and chip area. Grain128 supports key size of 128 bits and IV size of 96 bits. The design is very simple and based on two shift registers, one linear and one nonlinear, and an output function. I.
Attack the Dragon
 Progress in Cryptology  INDOCRYPT 2005, Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2005
"... Dragon is a word oriented stream cipher submitted to the ECRYPT project, it operates on key sizes of 128 and 256 bits. The original idea of the design is to use a nonlinear feedback shift register (NLFSR) and a linear part (counter), combined by a filter function to generate a new state of the NL ..."
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Dragon is a word oriented stream cipher submitted to the ECRYPT project, it operates on key sizes of 128 and 256 bits. The original idea of the design is to use a nonlinear feedback shift register (NLFSR) and a linear part (counter), combined by a filter function to generate a new state of the NLFSR and produce the keystream. The internal state of the cipher is 1088 bits, i.e., any kinds of TMD attacks are not applicable. In this paper we present two statistical distinguishers that distinguish Dragon from a random source both requiring around O(2 ) words of the keystream. In the first scenario the time complexity is around O(2 ) with the memory complexity O(2 ), whereas the second scenario needs only O(2 ) of time, but O(2 ) of memory. The attack is based on a statistical weakness introduced into the keystream by the filter function F . This is the first paper presenting an attack on Dragon, and it shows that the cipher does not provide full security when the key of size 256 bits is used.
A New Version of Grain128 with Authentication
"... Abstract. A new version of the stream cipher Grain128 is proposed. The new version, Grain128a, is strengthened against all known attacks and observations on the original Grain128, and has builtin support for authentication. The changes are modest, keeping the basic structure of Grain128. This g ..."
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Abstract. A new version of the stream cipher Grain128 is proposed. The new version, Grain128a, is strengthened against all known attacks and observations on the original Grain128, and has builtin support for authentication. The changes are modest, keeping the basic structure of Grain128. This gives a high confidence in Grain128a and allows for easy updating of existing implementations.
A New Statistical Distinguisher for the Shrinking Generator
, 2003
"... The shrinking generator is a wellknown keystream generator composed of two linear feedback shift registers, LFSR 1 and LFSR 2 , where LFSR 1 is clockcontrolled according to regularly clocked LFSR 2 . The keystream sequence is thus a decimated LFSR 1 sequence. ..."
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The shrinking generator is a wellknown keystream generator composed of two linear feedback shift registers, LFSR 1 and LFSR 2 , where LFSR 1 is clockcontrolled according to regularly clocked LFSR 2 . The keystream sequence is thus a decimated LFSR 1 sequence.
Linear Sequential Circuit Approximation of Grain and Trivium Stream Ciphers * 1
"... Abstract. Grain and Trivium are two hardware oriented synchronous stream ciphers proposed as the simplest candidates to the ECRYPT Stream Cipher Project, both dealing with 80bit secret keys. In this paper we apply the linear sequential circuit approximation method to evaluate the strength of these ..."
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Abstract. Grain and Trivium are two hardware oriented synchronous stream ciphers proposed as the simplest candidates to the ECRYPT Stream Cipher Project, both dealing with 80bit secret keys. In this paper we apply the linear sequential circuit approximation method to evaluate the strength of these stream ciphers against distinguishing attack. In this approximation method which was initially introduced by Golic in 1994, linear models are effectively determined for autonomous finitestate machines. We derive linear functions of consecutive keystream bits which are held with correlation coefficient of about 263.7 and 2126 for Grain and Trivium ciphers, respectively. Then using the concept of socalled generating function, we turn them into linear functions with correlation coefficient of 229 for Grain and 272 for Trivium. It shows that the Grain output sequence can be distinguished from a purely random sequence, using about 2 58 bits of the output sequence with the same time complexity. However, our attempt fails to find a successful distinguisher for Trivium.
Hassanzadeh M.: Linear Sequential Circuit Approximation of the Trivium Stream Cipher. eSTREAM, ECRYPT Stream Cipher Project Report 2005/063
, 2005
"... TRIVIUM is the simplest ECRYPT Stream Cipher project Candidate which deals with key and IV of length 80. Using the sequential Circuit Approximation method, ..."
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TRIVIUM is the simplest ECRYPT Stream Cipher project Candidate which deals with key and IV of length 80. Using the sequential Circuit Approximation method,
Pseudorandom Sequences obtained from Expansions of Irrational Numbers
, 1995
"... The main challenge in stream cipher design is to produce sequences that appear random. A number of keystream generators have been proposed and considered in the literature (several of those have been broken). The common characteristic of these keystream generators is that the obtained sequences are ..."
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The main challenge in stream cipher design is to produce sequences that appear random. A number of keystream generators have been proposed and considered in the literature (several of those have been broken). The common characteristic of these keystream generators is that the obtained sequences are periodic. This paper proposes a novel method for the generation of pseudorandom sequences. The method is based on the expansion of irrational numbers. In contrast to previous methods, our method produces nonperiodic sequences. It will be shown that binary sequences obtained from the expansions of irrational numbers behave randomly. In other words, the output sequences are indistinguishable from the truly random sequences. The advantages of our method, in contrast to the truly random generators (like tossing a coin), is that the sequences can be reproduced. The output of this pseudorandom generator is provably unpredictable provided the attacker does not know the secret seed. 1 Introduction ...