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NonMalleable Cryptography
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2000
"... The notion of nonmalleable cryptography, an extension of semantically secure cryptography, is defined. Informally, in the context of encryption the additional requirement is that given the ciphertext it is impossible to generate a different ciphertext so that the respective plaintexts are related. ..."
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Cited by 450 (22 self)
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The notion of nonmalleable cryptography, an extension of semantically secure cryptography, is defined. Informally, in the context of encryption the additional requirement is that given the ciphertext it is impossible to generate a different ciphertext so that the respective plaintexts are related. The same concept makes sense in the contexts of string commitment and zeroknowledge proofs of possession of knowledge. Nonmalleable schemes for each of these three problems are presented. The schemes do not assume a trusted center; a user need not know anything about the number or identity of other system users. Our cryptosystem is the first proven to be secure against a strong type of chosen ciphertext attack proposed by Rackoff and Simon, in which the attacker knows the ciphertext she wishes to break and can query the decryption oracle on any ciphertext other than the target.
Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography
, 2004
"... Elliptic curves have been intensively studied in number theory and algebraic geometry for over 100 years and there is an enormous amount of literature on the subject. To quote the mathematician Serge Lang: It is possible to write endlessly on elliptic curves. (This is not a threat.) Elliptic curves ..."
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Cited by 376 (17 self)
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Elliptic curves have been intensively studied in number theory and algebraic geometry for over 100 years and there is an enormous amount of literature on the subject. To quote the mathematician Serge Lang: It is possible to write endlessly on elliptic curves. (This is not a threat.) Elliptic curves also figured prominently in the recent proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by Andrew Wiles. Originally pursued for purely aesthetic reasons, elliptic curves have recently been utilized in devising algorithms for factoring integers, primality proving, and in publickey cryptography. In this article, we aim to give the reader an introduction to elliptic curve cryptosystems, and to demonstrate why these systems provide relatively small block sizes, highspeed software and hardware implementations, and offer the highest strengthperkeybit of any known publickey scheme.
Lower Bounds for Discrete Logarithms and Related Problems
, 1997
"... . This paper considers the computational complexity of the discrete logarithm and related problems in the context of "generic algorithms"that is, algorithms which do not exploit any special properties of the encodings of group elements, other than the property that each group element is encoded a ..."
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Cited by 221 (11 self)
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. This paper considers the computational complexity of the discrete logarithm and related problems in the context of "generic algorithms"that is, algorithms which do not exploit any special properties of the encodings of group elements, other than the property that each group element is encoded as a unique binary string. Lower bounds on the complexity of these problems are proved that match the known upper bounds: any generic algorithm must perform\Omega (p 1=2 ) group operations, where p is the largest prime dividing the order of the group. Also, a new method for correcting a faulty DiffieHellman oracle is presented. 1 Introduction The discrete logarithm problem plays an important role in cryptography. The problem is this: given a generator g of a cyclic group G, and an element g x in G, determine x. A related problem is the DiffieHellman problem: given g x and g y , determine g xy . In this paper, we study the computational power of "generic algorithms" that is, ...
The Decision DiffieHellman Problem
, 1998
"... The Decision DiffieHellman assumption (ddh) is a gold mine. It enables one to construct efficient cryptographic systems with strong security properties. In this paper we survey the recent applications of DDH as well as known results regarding its security. We describe some open problems in this are ..."
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Cited by 196 (6 self)
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The Decision DiffieHellman assumption (ddh) is a gold mine. It enables one to construct efficient cryptographic systems with strong security properties. In this paper we survey the recent applications of DDH as well as known results regarding its security. We describe some open problems in this area. 1 Introduction An important goal of cryptography is to pin down the exact complexity assumptions used by cryptographic protocols. Consider the DiffieHellman key exchange protocol [12]: Alice and Bob fix a finite cyclic group G and a generator g. They respectively pick random a; b 2 [1; jGj] and exchange g a ; g b . The secret key is g ab . To totally break the protocol a passive eavesdropper, Eve, must compute the DiffieHellman function defined as: dh g (g a ; g b ) = g ab . We say that the group G satisfies the Computational DiffieHellman assumption (cdh) if no efficient algorithm can compute the function dh g (x; y) in G. Precise definitions are given in the next sectio...
On the (im)possibility of obfuscating programs
 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2001
"... Informally, an obfuscator O is an (efficient, probabilistic) “compiler ” that takes as input a program (or circuit) P and produces a new program O(P) that has the same functionality as P yet is “unintelligible ” in some sense. Obfuscators, if they exist, would have a wide variety of cryptographic an ..."
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Cited by 189 (10 self)
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Informally, an obfuscator O is an (efficient, probabilistic) “compiler ” that takes as input a program (or circuit) P and produces a new program O(P) that has the same functionality as P yet is “unintelligible ” in some sense. Obfuscators, if they exist, would have a wide variety of cryptographic and complexitytheoretic applications, ranging from software protection to homomorphic encryption to complexitytheoretic analogues of Rice’s theorem. Most of these applications are based on an interpretation of the “unintelligibility ” condition in obfuscation as meaning that O(P) is a “virtual black box, ” in the sense that anything one can efficiently compute given O(P), one could also efficiently compute given oracle access to P. In this work, we initiate a theoretical investigation of obfuscation. Our main result is that, even under very weak formalizations of the above intuition, obfuscation is impossible. We prove this by constructing a family of efficient programs P that are unobfuscatable in the sense that (a) given any efficient program P ′ that computes the same function as a program P ∈ P, the “source code ” P can be efficiently reconstructed, yet (b) given oracle access to a (randomly selected) program P ∈ P, no efficient algorithm can reconstruct P (or even distinguish a certain bit in the code from random) except with negligible probability. We extend our impossibility result in a number of ways, including even obfuscators that (a) are not necessarily computable in polynomial time, (b) only approximately preserve the functionality, and (c) only need to work for very restricted models of computation (TC 0). We also rule out several potential applications of obfuscators, by constructing “unobfuscatable” signature schemes, encryption schemes, and pseudorandom function families.
Numbertheoretic constructions of efficient pseudorandom functions
 In 38th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 1997
"... ..."
PublicKey Cryptosystems from Lattice Reduction Problems
, 1996
"... We present a new proposal for a trapdoor oneway function, from whichwe derive publickey encryption and digital signatures. The security of the new construction is based on the conjectured computational difficulty of latticereduction problems, providing a possible alternative to existing publicke ..."
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Cited by 122 (5 self)
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We present a new proposal for a trapdoor oneway function, from whichwe derive publickey encryption and digital signatures. The security of the new construction is based on the conjectured computational difficulty of latticereduction problems, providing a possible alternative to existing publickey encryption algorithms and digital signatures such as RSA and DSS.
NonInteractive CryptoComputing for NC1
 In 40th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 1999
"... The area of "computing with encrypted data" has been studied by numerous authors in the past twenty years since it is fundamental to understanding properties of encryption and it has many practical applications. The related fundamental area of "secure function evaluation" has been studied since the ..."
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Cited by 71 (0 self)
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The area of "computing with encrypted data" has been studied by numerous authors in the past twenty years since it is fundamental to understanding properties of encryption and it has many practical applications. The related fundamental area of "secure function evaluation" has been studied since the mid 80's. In its basic twoparty case, two parties (Alice and Bob) evaluate a known circuit over private inputs (or a private input and a private circuit). Much attention has been paid to the important issue of minimizing rounds of computation in this model. Namely, the number of communication rounds in which Alice and Bob need to engage in to evaluate a circuit on encrypted data securely. Advancements in these areas have been recognized as open problems and have remained open for a number of years. In this paper we give a one round, and thus round optimal, protocol for secure evaluation of circuits which is in polynomialtime for NC
Authenticated DiffieHellman Key Agreement Protocols
, 1998
"... This paper surveys recent work on the design and analysis of key agreement protocols that are based on the intractability of the DiffieHellman problem. The focus is on protocols that have been standardized, or are in the process of being standardized, by organizations such as ANSI, IEEE, ISO/IEC, a ..."
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Cited by 70 (1 self)
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This paper surveys recent work on the design and analysis of key agreement protocols that are based on the intractability of the DiffieHellman problem. The focus is on protocols that have been standardized, or are in the process of being standardized, by organizations such as ANSI, IEEE, ISO/IEC, and NIST. The practical and provable security aspects of these protocols are discussed.
Homomorphic Signature Schemes
"... Privacy homomorphisms, encryption schemes that are also homomorphisms relative to some binary operation, have been studied for some time, but one may also consider the analogous problem of homomorphic signature schemes. In this paper we introduce basic definitions of security for homomorphic signa ..."
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Cited by 69 (2 self)
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Privacy homomorphisms, encryption schemes that are also homomorphisms relative to some binary operation, have been studied for some time, but one may also consider the analogous problem of homomorphic signature schemes. In this paper we introduce basic definitions of security for homomorphic signature systems, motivate the inquiry with example applications, and describe several schemes that are homomorphic with respect to useful binary operations. In particular, we describe a scheme that allows a signature holder to construct the signature on an arbitrarily redacted submessage of the originally signed message. We present another scheme for signing sets that is homomorphic with respect to both union and taking subsets. Finally, we show that any signature scheme that is homomorphic with respect to integer addition must be insecure.