Results 1  10
of
82
Gradientbased learning applied to document recognition
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 1998
"... Multilayer neural networks trained with the backpropagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradientbased learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradientbased learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify hi ..."
Abstract

Cited by 742 (59 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Multilayer neural networks trained with the backpropagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradientbased learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradientbased learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify highdimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of two dimensional (2D) shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Reallife document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation, recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN’s), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradientbased methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank check is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal checks. It is deployed commercially and reads several million checks per day.
Dynamic Bayesian Networks: Representation, Inference and Learning
, 2002
"... Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have bee ..."
Abstract

Cited by 565 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have been used for problems ranging from tracking planes and missiles to predicting the economy. However, HMMs
and KFMs are limited in their “expressive power”. Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) generalize HMMs by allowing the state space to be represented in factored form, instead of as a single discrete random variable. DBNs generalize KFMs by allowing arbitrary probability distributions, not just (unimodal) linearGaussian. In this thesis, I will discuss how to represent many different kinds of models as DBNs, how to perform exact and approximate inference in DBNs, and how to learn DBN models from sequential data.
In particular, the main novel technical contributions of this thesis are as follows: a way of representing
Hierarchical HMMs as DBNs, which enables inference to be done in O(T) time instead of O(T 3), where T is the length of the sequence; an exact smoothing algorithm that takes O(log T) space instead of O(T); a simple way of using the junction tree algorithm for online inference in DBNs; new complexity bounds on exact online inference in DBNs; a new deterministic approximate inference algorithm called factored frontier; an analysis of the relationship between the BK algorithm and loopy belief propagation; a way of
applying RaoBlackwellised particle filtering to DBNs in general, and the SLAM (simultaneous localization
and mapping) problem in particular; a way of extending the structural EM algorithm to DBNs; and a variety of different applications of DBNs. However, perhaps the main value of the thesis is its catholic presentation of the field of sequential data modelling.
A General Framework for Adaptive Processing of Data Structures
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS
, 1998
"... A structured organization of information is typically required by symbolic processing. On the other hand, most connectionist models assume that data are organized according to relatively poor structures, like arrays or sequences. The framework described in this paper is an attempt to unify adaptive ..."
Abstract

Cited by 118 (47 self)
 Add to MetaCart
A structured organization of information is typically required by symbolic processing. On the other hand, most connectionist models assume that data are organized according to relatively poor structures, like arrays or sequences. The framework described in this paper is an attempt to unify adaptive models like artificial neural nets and belief nets for the problem of processing structured information. In particular, relations between data variables are expressed by directed acyclic graphs, where both numerical and categorical values coexist. The general framework proposed in this paper can be regarded as an extension of both recurrent neural networks and hidden Markov models to the case of acyclic graphs. In particular we study the supervised learning problem as the problem of learning transductions from an input structured space to an output structured space, where transductions are assumed to admit a recursive hidden statespace representation. We introduce a graphical formalism for r...
Exploiting the Past and the Future in Protein Secondary Structure Prediction
, 1999
"... Motivation: Predicting the secondary structure of a protein (alphahelix, betasheet, coil) is an important step towards elucidating its three dimensional structure, as well as its function. Presently, the best predictors are based on machine learning approaches, in particular neural network archite ..."
Abstract

Cited by 115 (22 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Motivation: Predicting the secondary structure of a protein (alphahelix, betasheet, coil) is an important step towards elucidating its three dimensional structure, as well as its function. Presently, the best predictors are based on machine learning approaches, in particular neural network architectures with a fixed, and relatively short, input window of amino acids, centered at the prediction site. Although a fixed small window avoids overfitting problems, it does not permit to capture variable longranged information. Results: We introduce a family of novel architectures which can learn to make predictions based on variable ranges of dependencies. These architectures extend recurrent neural networks, introducing noncausal bidirectional dynamics to capture both upstream and downstream information. The prediction algorithm is completed by the use of mixtures of estimators that leverage evolutionary information, expressed in terms of multiple alignments, both at the input and output levels. While our system currently achieves an overall performance close to 76% correct predictionat least comparable to the best existing systemsthe main emphasis here is on the development of new algorithmic ideas. Availability: The executable program for predicting protein secondary structure is available from the authors free of charge. Contact: pfbaldi@ics.uci.edu, gpollast@ics.uci.edu, brunak@cbs.dtu.dk, paolo@dsi.unifi.it. 1
Probability product kernels
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2004
"... The advantages of discriminative learning algorithms and kernel machines are combined with generative modeling using a novel kernel between distributions. In the probability product kernel, data points in the input space are mapped to distributions over the sample space and a general inner product i ..."
Abstract

Cited by 104 (7 self)
 Add to MetaCart
The advantages of discriminative learning algorithms and kernel machines are combined with generative modeling using a novel kernel between distributions. In the probability product kernel, data points in the input space are mapped to distributions over the sample space and a general inner product is then evaluated as the integral of the product of pairs of distributions. The kernel is straightforward to evaluate for all exponential family models such as multinomials and Gaussians and yields interesting nonlinear kernels. Furthermore, the kernel is computable in closed form for latent distributions such as mixture models, hidden Markov models and linear dynamical systems. For intractable models, such as switching linear dynamical systems, structured meanfield approximations can be brought to bear on the kernel evaluation. For general distributions, even if an analytic expression for the kernel is not feasible, we show a straightforward sampling method to evaluate it. Thus, the kernel permits discriminative learning methods, including support vector machines, to exploit the properties, metrics and invariances of the generative models we infer from each datum. Experiments are shown using multinomial models for text, hidden Markov models for biological data sets and linear dynamical systems for time series data.
Machine learning for sequential data: A review
 Structural, Syntactic, and Statistical Pattern Recognition
, 2002
"... Abstract. Statistical learning problems in many fields involve sequential data. This paper formalizes the principal learning tasks and describes the methods that have been developed within the machine learning research community for addressing these problems. These methods include sliding window met ..."
Abstract

Cited by 84 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Abstract. Statistical learning problems in many fields involve sequential data. This paper formalizes the principal learning tasks and describes the methods that have been developed within the machine learning research community for addressing these problems. These methods include sliding window methods, recurrent sliding windows, hidden Markov models, conditional random fields, and graph transformer networks. The paper also discusses some open research issues. 1
Coupled hidden Markov models for modeling interacting processes
, 1997
"... We present methods for coupling hidden Markov models (hmms) to model systems of multiple interacting processes. The resulting models have multiple state variables that are temporally coupled via matrices of conditional probabilities. We introduce a deterministic O(T (CN) 2 ) approximation for maxi ..."
Abstract

Cited by 62 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We present methods for coupling hidden Markov models (hmms) to model systems of multiple interacting processes. The resulting models have multiple state variables that are temporally coupled via matrices of conditional probabilities. We introduce a deterministic O(T (CN) 2 ) approximation for maximum a posterior (MAP) state estimation which enables fast classification and parameter estimation via expectation maximization. An "Nheads" dynamic programming algorithm samples from the highest probability paths through a compact state trellis, minimizing an upper bound on the cross entropy with the full (combinatoric) dynamic programming problem. The complexity is O(T (CN) 2 ) for C chains of N states apiece observing T data points, compared with O(TN 2C ) for naive (Cartesian product), exact (state clustering), and stochastic (Monte Carlo) methods applied to the same inference problem. In several experiments examining training time, model likelihoods, classification accuracy, and ro...
The principled design of largescale recursive neural network architectures–dagrnns and the protein structure prediction problem
, 2003
"... We describe a general methodology for the design of largescale recursive neural network architectures (DAGRNNs) which comprises three fundamental steps: (1) representation of a given domain using suitable directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) to connect visible and hidden node variables; (2) parameteriza ..."
Abstract

Cited by 41 (12 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We describe a general methodology for the design of largescale recursive neural network architectures (DAGRNNs) which comprises three fundamental steps: (1) representation of a given domain using suitable directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) to connect visible and hidden node variables; (2) parameterization of the relationship between each variable and its parent variables by feedforward neural networks; and (3) application of weightsharing within appropriate subsets of DAG connections to capture stationarity and control model complexity. Here we use these principles to derive several specific classes of DAGRNN architectures based on lattices, trees, and other structured graphs. These architectures can process a wide range of data structures with variable sizes and dimensions. While the overall resulting models remain probabilistic, the internal deterministic dynamics allows efficient propagation of information, as well as training by gradient descent, in order to tackle largescale problems. These methods are used here to derive stateoftheart predictors for protein structural features such as secondary structure (1D) and both fine and coarsegrained contact maps (2D). Extensions, relationships to graphical models, and implications for the design of neural architectures are briefly discussed. The protein prediction servers are available over the
Unsupervised Language Acquisition: Theory and Practice
, 2001
"... In this thesis I present various algorithms for the unsupervised machine learning of aspects of natural languages using a variety of statistical models. The scientific object of the work is to examine the validity of the socalled Argument from the Poverty of the Stimulus advanced in favour of the p ..."
Abstract

Cited by 40 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
In this thesis I present various algorithms for the unsupervised machine learning of aspects of natural languages using a variety of statistical models. The scientific object of the work is to examine the validity of the socalled Argument from the Poverty of the Stimulus advanced in favour of the proposition that humans have languagespecific innate knowledge. I start by examining an a priori argument based on Gold's theorem, that purports to prove that natural languages cannot be learned, and some formal issues related to the choice of statistical grammars rather than symbolic grammars. I present three novel algorithms for learning various parts of natural languages: first, an algorithm for the induction of syntactic categories from unlabelled text using distributional information, that can deal with ambiguous and rare words; secondly, a set of algorithms for learning morphological processes in a variety of languages, including languages such as Arabic with nonconcatenative morphology; thirdly an algorithm for the unsupervised induction of a contextfree grammar from tagged text. I carefully examine the interaction between the various components, and show how these algorithms can form the basis for a empiricist model of language acquisition. I therefore conclude that the Argument from the Poverty of the Stimulus is unsupported by the evidence.