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76
Color indexing
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1991
"... Computer vision is embracing a new research focus in which the aim is to develop visual skills for robots that allow them to interact with a dynamic, realistic environment. To achieve this aim, new kinds of vision algorithms need to be developed which run in real time and subserve the robot's goals. ..."
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Cited by 1324 (24 self)
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Computer vision is embracing a new research focus in which the aim is to develop visual skills for robots that allow them to interact with a dynamic, realistic environment. To achieve this aim, new kinds of vision algorithms need to be developed which run in real time and subserve the robot's goals. Two fundamental goals are determining the location of a known object. Color can be successfully used for both tasks. This article demonstrates that color histograms of multicolored objects provide a robust, efficient cue for indexing into a large database of models. It shows that color histograms are stable object representations in the presence of occlusion and over change in view, and that they can differentiate among a large number of objects. For solving the identification problem, it introduces a technique called Histogram Intersection, which matches model and image histograms and a fast incremental version of Histogram Intersection, which allows realtime indexing into a large database of stored models. For solving the location problem it introduces an algorithm called Histogram Backprojection, which performs this task efficiently in crowded scenes. 1
Epipolarplane image analysis: An approach to determining structure from motion
 Intern..1. Computer Vision
, 1987
"... We present a technique for building a threedimensional description of a static scene from a dense sequence of images. These images are taken in such rapid succession that they form a solid block of data in which the temporal continuity from image to image is approximately equal to the spatial conti ..."
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Cited by 209 (3 self)
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We present a technique for building a threedimensional description of a static scene from a dense sequence of images. These images are taken in such rapid succession that they form a solid block of data in which the temporal continuity from image to image is approximately equal to the spatial continuity in an individual image. The technique utilizes knowledge of the camera motion to form and analyze slices of this solid. These slices directly encode not only the threedimensional positions of objects, but also such spatiotemporal events as the occlusion of one object by another. For straightline camera motions, these slices have a simple linear structure that makes them easier to analyze. The analysis computes the threedimensional positions of object features, marks occlusion boundaries on the objects, and builds a threedimensional map of "free space. " In our article, we first describe the application of this technique to a simple camera motion, and then show how projective duality is used to extend the analysis to a wider class of camera motions and object types that include curved and moving objects. 1
ModelBased Recognition in Robot Vision
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1986
"... This paper presents a comparative study and survey of modelbased objectrecognition algorithms for robot vision. The goal of these algorithms is to recognize the identity, position, and orientation of randomly oriented industrial parts. In one form this is commonly referred to as the “binpicking ” ..."
Abstract

Cited by 161 (0 self)
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This paper presents a comparative study and survey of modelbased objectrecognition algorithms for robot vision. The goal of these algorithms is to recognize the identity, position, and orientation of randomly oriented industrial parts. In one form this is commonly referred to as the “binpicking ” problem, in which the parts to be recognized are presented in a jumbled bin. The paper is organized according to 2D, 2&D, and 3D object representations, which are used as the basis for the recognition algorithms. Three
The Visual Motion of Curves and Surfaces
, 1998
"... This paper addresses the problem of recovering the 3D shape and motion of curves and surfaces from image sequences of apparent contours. For known viewer motion the visible surfaces can then be reconstructed by exploiting a spatiotemporal parametrization of the apparent contours and contour generat ..."
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Cited by 103 (16 self)
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This paper addresses the problem of recovering the 3D shape and motion of curves and surfaces from image sequences of apparent contours. For known viewer motion the visible surfaces can then be reconstructed by exploiting a spatiotemporal parametrization of the apparent contours and contour generators under viewer motion. A natural parametrization exploits the contour generators and the epipolar geometry between successive viewpoints. The epipolar parametrization (Cipolla & Blake 1992) leads to simplified expressions for the recovery of depth and surface curvatures from image velocities and accelerations and known viewer motion. The parametrization is, however, degenerate when the apparent contour is singular since the ray is tangent to the contour generator (Koenderink & Van Doorn 1976) and at frontier points (Giblin & Weiss 1994) when the epipolar plane is a tangent plane to the surface. At these isolated points the epipolar parametrization can no longer be used to recover the local surface geometry. This paper reviews the epipolar parametrization and shows how the degenerate cases can be used to recover surface geometry and unknown viewer motion from apparent contours of curved surfaces. Practical implementations are outlined. 1. Introduction
Visibility, Occlusion, and the Aspect Graph
, 1987
"... In this paper we study the ways in which the topology of the image of a polyhedron changes with changing viewpoint. We catalog the ways that the topological appearance, or aspect, can change. This enables us to find maximal regions of viewpoints of the same aspect. We use these techniques to constru ..."
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Cited by 88 (7 self)
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In this paper we study the ways in which the topology of the image of a polyhedron changes with changing viewpoint. We catalog the ways that the topological appearance, or aspect, can change. This enables us to find maximal regions of viewpoints of the same aspect. We use these techniques to construct the viewpoint space partition (VSP), a partition of viewpoint space into maximal regions of constant aspect, and its dual, the aspect graph. In this paper we present tight bounds on the maximum size of the VSP and the aspect graph and give algorithms for their construction, first in the convex case and then in the general case. In particular, we give bounds on the maximum size of Q(n 2 ) and Q (n 6 ) under an orthographic projection viewing model and of Q(n 3 ) and Q(n 9 ) under a perspective viewing model. The algorithms make use of a new representation of the appearance of polyhedra from all viewpoints, called the aspect representation or asp. We believe that this representation...
Computing the Aspect Graph for Line Drawings Polyhedral Objects
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1990
"... We have developed an algorithm for computing the aspect graph for polyhedral objects, The aspect graph is a representation of 3D objects by a set of 2D views. The set of viewpoints on the Gaussian sphere is partitioned into regions such that in each region the quali tative structure of the line d ..."
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Cited by 83 (1 self)
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We have developed an algorithm for computing the aspect graph for polyhedral objects, The aspect graph is a representation of 3D objects by a set of 2D views. The set of viewpoints on the Gaussian sphere is partitioned into regions such that in each region the quali tative structure of the line drawing remains the same. At the boundaries between adjacent regions are the accidental viewpoints where the structure of the line drawing changesa visual event occurs. We show lhat for polyhedral objects there are two fundamental visual events: 1) the projections of an edge and a vertex coincide, and 2) the projections of three nonadjacent edges intersect at a point. The geometry of the object is reflected in the locus of the accidental viewpointsthe boundaries of the partition. The algorithm compute the partition together with a representative view for each region of the partition. In the course of presenting the algorithm, we provide a full catalog of the changes that occur in the views during each fundamental event.
ImageDriven Simplification
, 2000
"... We introduce the notion of imagedriven simplification, a framework that uses images to decide which portions of a model to simplify. This is a departure from approaches that make polygonal simplification decisions based on geometry. As with many methods, we use the edge collapse operator to make ..."
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Cited by 76 (4 self)
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We introduce the notion of imagedriven simplification, a framework that uses images to decide which portions of a model to simplify. This is a departure from approaches that make polygonal simplification decisions based on geometry. As with many methods, we use the edge collapse operator to make incremental changes to a model. Unique to our approach, however, is the use of comparisons between images of the original model against those of a simplified model to determine the cost of an edge collapse. We use common graphics rendering hardware to accelerate the creation of the required images. As expected, this method produces models that are close to the original model according to image differences. Perhaps more surprising, however, is that the method yields models that have high geometric fidelity as well. Our approach also solves the quandary of how to weight the geometric distance versus appearance properties such as normals, color and texture. All of these tradeoffs are ba...
Logical/Linear Operators for Image Curves
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1995
"... We propose a language for designing image measurement operators suitable for early vision. We refer to them as logical/linear (L/L) operators, since they unify aspects of linear operator theory and boolean logic. A family of these operators appropriate for measuring the loworder differential struct ..."
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Cited by 46 (7 self)
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We propose a language for designing image measurement operators suitable for early vision. We refer to them as logical/linear (L/L) operators, since they unify aspects of linear operator theory and boolean logic. A family of these operators appropriate for measuring the loworder differential structure of image curves is developed. These L/L operators are derived by decomposing a linear model into logical components to ensure that certain structural preconditions for the existence of an image curve are upheld. Tangential conditions guarantee continuity, while normal conditions select and categorize contrast profiles. The resulting operators allow for coarse measurement of curvilinear differential structure (orientation and curvature) while successfully segregating edge and linelike features. By thus reducing the incidence of falsepositive responses, these operators are a substantial improvement over (thresholded) linear operators which attempt to resolve the same class of features. ...
View Selection for Volume Rendering
, 2005
"... In a visualization of a threedimensional dataset, the insights gained are dependent on what is occluded and what is not. Suggestion of interesting viewpoints can improve both the speed and efficiency of data understanding. This paper presents a view selection method designed for volume rendering. I ..."
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Cited by 40 (3 self)
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In a visualization of a threedimensional dataset, the insights gained are dependent on what is occluded and what is not. Suggestion of interesting viewpoints can improve both the speed and efficiency of data understanding. This paper presents a view selection method designed for volume rendering. It can be used to find informative views for a given scene, or to find a minimal set of representative views which capture the entire scene. It becomes particularly useful when the visualization process is noninteractive  for example, when visualizing large datasets or timevarying sequences. We introduce a viewpoint "goodness" measure based on the formulation of entropy from information theory. The measure takes into account the transfer function, the data distribution and the visibility of the voxels. Combined with viewpoint properties like viewlikelihood and viewstability, this technique can be used as a guide which suggests "interesting" viewpoints for further exploration. Domain knowledge is incorporated into the algorithm via an importance transfer function or volume. This allows users to obtain view selection behaviors tailored to their specific situations. We generate a view space partitioning, and select one representative view for each partition. Together, this set of views encapsulates the "interesting" and distinct views of the data. Viewpoints in this set can be used as starting points for interactive exploration of the data, thus reducing the human effort in visualization. In noninteractive situations, such a set can be used as a representative visualization of the dataset from all directions.