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The complexity of decision versus search
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1994
"... A basic question about NP is whether or not search reduces in polynomial time to decision. We indicate that the answer is negative: under a complexity assumption (that deterministic and nondeterministic doubleexponential time are unequal) we construct a language in NP for which search does not red ..."
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Cited by 32 (1 self)
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A basic question about NP is whether or not search reduces in polynomial time to decision. We indicate that the answer is negative: under a complexity assumption (that deterministic and nondeterministic doubleexponential time are unequal) we construct a language in NP for which search does not reduce to decision. These ideas extend in a natural way to interactive proofs and program checking. Under similar assumptions we present languages in NP for which it is harder to prove membership interactively than it is to decide this membership, and languages in NP which are not checkable. Keywords: NPcompleteness, selfreducibility, interactive proofs, program checking, sparse sets,
Simulatable Commitments and Efficient Concurrent ZeroKnowledge
 In EUROCRYPT’03, volume 2656 of LNCS
, 2003
"... Abstract. We define and construct simulatable commitments. These are commitment schemes such that there is an efficient interactive proof system to show that a given string c is a legitimate commitment on a given value v, and furthermore, this proof is efficiently simulatable given any proper pair ( ..."
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Cited by 7 (1 self)
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Abstract. We define and construct simulatable commitments. These are commitment schemes such that there is an efficient interactive proof system to show that a given string c is a legitimate commitment on a given value v, and furthermore, this proof is efficiently simulatable given any proper pair (c, v). Our construction is provably secure based on the Decisional DiffieHellman (DDH) assumption. Using simulatable commitments, we show how to efficiently transform any public coin honest verifier zero knowledge proof system into a proof system that is concurrent zeroknowledge with respect to any (possibly cheating) verifier via black box simulation. By efficient we mean that our transformation incurs only an additive overhead (both in terms of the number of rounds and the computational and communication complexity of each round), and the additive term is close to optimal (for black box simulation): only ω(log n) additional rounds, and ω(log n) additional public key operations for each round of the original protocol, where n is a security parameter, and ω(log n) can be any superlogarithmic function of n independent of the complexity of the original protocol. The transformation preserves (up to negligible additive terms) the soundness and completeness error probabilities, and the new proof system is proved secure based on the DDH assumption, in the standard model of computation, i.e., no random oracles, shared random strings, or public key infrastructure is assumed. 1
Efficient and Concurrent ZeroKnowledge from any public coin HVZK protocol
, 2002
"... We show how to efficiently transform any public coin honest verifier zero knowledge proof system into a proof system that is concurrent zeroknowledge with respect to any (possibly cheating) verifier via black box simulation. By efficient we mean that our transformation incurs only an additive overh ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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We show how to efficiently transform any public coin honest verifier zero knowledge proof system into a proof system that is concurrent zeroknowledge with respect to any (possibly cheating) verifier via black box simulation. By efficient we mean that our transformation incurs only an additive overhead, both in terms of the number of rounds and the computational and communication complexity of each round, independently of the complexity of the original protocol. Moreover, the transformation preserves (up to negligible additive terms) the soundness and completeness error probabilities. The new proof system is proved secure based on the Decisional DieHellman (DDH) assumption, in the standard model of computation, i.e., no random oracles, shared random strings, or public key infrastructure is assumed. In addition to the introduction of a practical protocol, this construction provides yet another example of ideas in plausibility results that turn into ideas in the construction of practical protocols.