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48
On the CostEffectiveness and Realization of the Theoretical PRAM Model
 SONDERFORSCHUNGSBEREICH 124 VLSI ENTWURFSMETHODEN UND PARALLELITAT, UNIVERSITAT SAARBRUCKEN
, 1991
"... Todays parallel computers provide good support for problems that can be easily embedded on the machines' topologies with regular and sparse communication patterns. But they show poor performance on problems that do not satisfy these conditions. A general purpose parallel computer should guarant ..."
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Cited by 16 (0 self)
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Todays parallel computers provide good support for problems that can be easily embedded on the machines' topologies with regular and sparse communication patterns. But they show poor performance on problems that do not satisfy these conditions. A general purpose parallel computer should guarantee good performance on most parallelizable problems and should allow users to program without special knowledge about the underlying architecture. Access to memory cells should be fast for local and non local cells and should not depend on the access pattern. A theoretical model that reaches this goal is the PRAM. But it was thought to be very expensive in terms of constant factors. Our goal is to show that the PRAM is a realistic approach for a general purpose architecture for any class of algorithms. To do that we sketch a measure of costeffectiveness that allows to determine constant factors in costs and speed of machines. This measure is based on the price/performance ratio and can be compu...
Rigorous Time/Space Tradeoffs for Inverting Functions
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2000
"... We provide rigorous time/space tradeoffs for inverting any function. Given a function f , we give a time/space tradeoff of TS q(f ), where q(f) is the probability that two random elements (taken with replacement) are mapped to the same image under f . We also give a more general tradeoff, TS ..."
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Cited by 15 (1 self)
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We provide rigorous time/space tradeoffs for inverting any function. Given a function f , we give a time/space tradeoff of TS q(f ), where q(f) is the probability that two random elements (taken with replacement) are mapped to the same image under f . We also give a more general tradeoff, TS , that can invert any function at any point.
Implementing the Hierarchical PRAM on the 2D Mesh: Analyses and Experiments
, 1995
"... We investigate aspects of the performance of the EREW instance of the Hierarchical PRAM (HPRAM) model, a recursively partitionable PRAM, on the 2D mesh architecture via analysis and simulation experiments. Since one of the ideas behind the HPRAM is to systematically exploit locality in order to ne ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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We investigate aspects of the performance of the EREW instance of the Hierarchical PRAM (HPRAM) model, a recursively partitionable PRAM, on the 2D mesh architecture via analysis and simulation experiments. Since one of the ideas behind the HPRAM is to systematically exploit locality in order to negate the need for expensive communication hardware and thus promote costeffective scalability, our design decisions are based on minimizing implementation costs. The Peano indexing scheme is used as a simple and natural means of allowing the dynamic, recursive partitioning of the mesh into arbitrarilysized submeshes, as required by the HPRAM. We show that for any submesh the ratio of the largest manhattan distance between two nodes of the submesh to that of the square mesh with an identical number of processors is at most 3/2, thereby demonstrating the locality preserving properties of the Peano scheme for arbitrary partitions of the mesh. We provide matching analytical and experimenta...
Strongly historyindependent hashing with applications
 In Proceedings of the 48th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 2007
"... We present a strongly history independent (SHI) hash table that supports search in O(1) worstcase time, and insert and delete in O(1) expected time using O(n) data space. This matches the bounds for dynamic perfect hashing, and improves on the best previous results by Naor and Teague on history ind ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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We present a strongly history independent (SHI) hash table that supports search in O(1) worstcase time, and insert and delete in O(1) expected time using O(n) data space. This matches the bounds for dynamic perfect hashing, and improves on the best previous results by Naor and Teague on history independent hashing, which were either weakly history independent, or only supported insertion and search (no delete) each in O(1) expected time. The results can be used to construct many other SHI data structures. We show straightforward constructions for SHI ordered dictionaries: for n keys from {1,..., n k} searches take O(log log n) worstcase time and updates (insertions and deletions) O(log log n) expected time, and for keys in the comparison model searches take O(log n) worstcase time and updates O(log n) expected time. We also describe a SHI data structure for the ordermaintenance problem. It supports comparisons in O(1) worstcase time, and updates in O(1) expected time. All structures use O(n) data space. 1
Faster Suffix Tree Construction with Missing Suffix Links
 In Proceedings of the Thirty Second Annual Symposium on the Theory of Computing
, 2000
"... We consider suffix tree construction for situations with missing suffix links. Two examples of such situations are suffix trees for parameterized strings and suffix trees for 2D arrays. These trees also have the property that the node degrees may be large. We add a new backpropagation component to ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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We consider suffix tree construction for situations with missing suffix links. Two examples of such situations are suffix trees for parameterized strings and suffix trees for 2D arrays. These trees also have the property that the node degrees may be large. We add a new backpropagation component to McCreight's algorithm and also give a high probability perfect hashing scheme to cope with large degrees. We show that these two features enable construction of suffix trees for general situations with missing suffix links in O(n) time, with high probability. This gives the first randomized linear time algorithm for constructing suffix trees for parameterized strings.
Deamortized Cuckoo Hashing: Provable WorstCase Performance and Experimental Results
"... Cuckoo hashing is a highly practical dynamic dictionary: it provides amortized constant insertion time, worst case constant deletion time and lookup time, and good memory utilization. However, with a noticeable probability during the insertion of n elements some insertion requires Ω(log n) time. Whe ..."
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Cited by 10 (3 self)
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Cuckoo hashing is a highly practical dynamic dictionary: it provides amortized constant insertion time, worst case constant deletion time and lookup time, and good memory utilization. However, with a noticeable probability during the insertion of n elements some insertion requires Ω(log n) time. Whereas such an amortized guarantee may be suitable for some applications, in other applications (such as highperformance routing) this is highly undesirable. Kirsch and Mitzenmacher (Allerton ’07) proposed a deamortization of cuckoo hashing using queueing techniques that preserve its attractive properties. They demonstrated a significant improvement to the worst case performance of cuckoo hashing via experimental results, but left open the problem of constructing a scheme with provable properties. In this work we present a deamortization of cuckoo hashing that provably guarantees constant worst case operations. Specifically, for any sequence of polynomially many operations, with overwhelming probability over the randomness of the initialization phase, each operation is performed in constant time. In addition, we present a general approach for proving that the performance guarantees are preserved when using hash functions with limited independence
Linear Hash Functions
, 1999
"... Consider the set # of all linear (or affine) transformations between two vector spaces over a finite field F. We study how good # is as a class of hash functions, namely we consider hashing a set S of size n into a range having the same cardinality n by a randomly chosen function from # and look at ..."
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Cited by 9 (0 self)
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Consider the set # of all linear (or affine) transformations between two vector spaces over a finite field F. We study how good # is as a class of hash functions, namely we consider hashing a set S of size n into a range having the same cardinality n by a randomly chosen function from # and look at the expected size of the largest hash bucket. # is a universal class of hash functions for any finite field, but with respect to our measure different fields behave differently. If the
CONTENTION RESOLUTION IN HASHING BASED SHARED MEMORY SIMULATIONS
, 2000
"... In this paper we study the problem of simulating shared memory on the distributed memory machine (DMM). Our approach uses multiple copies of shared memory cells, distributed among the memory modules of the DMM via universal hashing. The main aim is to design strategies that resolve contention at th ..."
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Cited by 9 (3 self)
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In this paper we study the problem of simulating shared memory on the distributed memory machine (DMM). Our approach uses multiple copies of shared memory cells, distributed among the memory modules of the DMM via universal hashing. The main aim is to design strategies that resolve contention at the memory modules. Extending results and methods from random graphs and very fast randomized algorithms, we present new simulation techniques that enable us to improve the previously best results exponentially. In particular, we show that an nprocessor CRCW PRAM can be simulated by an nprocessor DMM with delay O(log log log n log ∗ n), with high probability. Next we describe a general technique that can be used to turn these simulations into timeprocessor optimal ones, in the case of EREW PRAMs to be simulated. We obtain a timeprocessor optimal simulation of an (n log log log n log ∗ n)processor EREW PRAM on an nprocessor DMM with delay O(log log log n log ∗ n), with high probability. When an (n log log log n log ∗ n)processor CRCW PRAM is simulated, the delay is only by a log ∗ n factor larger. We further demonstrate that the simulations presented can not be significantly improved using our techniques. We show an Ω(log log log n / log log log log n) lower bound on the expected delay for a class of PRAM simulations, called topological simulations, that covers all previously known simulations as well as the simulations presented in the paper.
SharedMemory Simulations on a FaultyMemory DMM
, 1996
"... this paper are synchronous, and the time performance is our major efficiency criterion. We consider a DMM with faulty memory words, otherwise everything is assumed to be operational. In particular the communication between the processors and the MUs is reliable, and a processor may always attempt to ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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this paper are synchronous, and the time performance is our major efficiency criterion. We consider a DMM with faulty memory words, otherwise everything is assumed to be operational. In particular the communication between the processors and the MUs is reliable, and a processor may always attempt to obtain an access to any MU, and, having been granted it, may access any memory word in it, even if all of them are faulty. The only restriction on the distribution of faults among memory words is that their total number is bounded from above by a fraction of the total number of memory words in all the MUs. In particular, some MUs may contain only operational cells, some only faulty cells, and some mixed cells. This report presents fast simulations of the PRAM on a DMM with faulty memory.
HistoryIndependent Cuckoo Hashing
"... Cuckoo hashing is an efficient and practical dynamic dictionary. It provides expected amortized constant update time, worst case constant lookup time, and good memory utilization. Various experiments demonstrated that cuckoo hashing is highly suitable for modern computer architectures and distribute ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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Cuckoo hashing is an efficient and practical dynamic dictionary. It provides expected amortized constant update time, worst case constant lookup time, and good memory utilization. Various experiments demonstrated that cuckoo hashing is highly suitable for modern computer architectures and distributed settings, and offers significant improvements compared to other schemes. In this work we construct a practical historyindependent dynamic dictionary based on cuckoo hashing. In a historyindependent data structure, the memory representation at any point in time yields no information on the specific sequence of insertions and deletions that led to its current content, other than the content itself. Such a property is significant when preventing unintended leakage of information, and was also found useful in several algorithmic settings. Our construction enjoys most of the attractive properties of cuckoo hashing. In particular, no dynamic memory allocation is required, updates are performed in expected amortized constant time, and membership queries are performed in worst case constant time. Moreover, with high probability, the lookup procedure queries only two memory entries which are independent and can be queried in parallel. The approach underlying our construction is to enforce a canonical memory representation on cuckoo hashing. That is, up to the initial randomness, each set of elements has a unique memory representation.