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118
Dynamical Sources in Information Theory: A General Analysis of Trie Structures
 ALGORITHMICA
, 1999
"... Digital trees, also known as tries, are a general purpose flexible data structure that implements dictionaries built on sets of words. An analysis is given of three major representations of tries in the form of arraytries, list tries, and bsttries ("ternary search tries"). The size and the sear ..."
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Cited by 50 (7 self)
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Digital trees, also known as tries, are a general purpose flexible data structure that implements dictionaries built on sets of words. An analysis is given of three major representations of tries in the form of arraytries, list tries, and bsttries ("ternary search tries"). The size and the search costs of the corresponding representations are analysed precisely in the average case, while a complete distributional analysis of height of tries is given. The unifying data model used is that of dynamical sources and it encompasses classical models like those of memoryless sources with independent symbols, of finite Markovchains, and of nonuniform densities. The probabilistic behaviour of the main parameters, namely size, path length, or height, appears to be determined by two intrinsic characteristics of the source: the entropy and the probability of letter coincidence. These characteristics are themselves related in a natural way to spectral properties of specific transfer operators of the Ruelle type.
Fast Text Searching for Regular Expressions or Automaton Searching on Tries
"... We present algorithms for efficient searching of regular expressions on preprocessed text, using a Patricia tree as a logical model for the index. We obtain searching algorithms that run in logarithmic expected time in the size of the text for a wide subclass of regular expressions, and in subline ..."
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Cited by 49 (6 self)
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We present algorithms for efficient searching of regular expressions on preprocessed text, using a Patricia tree as a logical model for the index. We obtain searching algorithms that run in logarithmic expected time in the size of the text for a wide subclass of regular expressions, and in sublinear expected time for any regular expression. This is the first such algorithm to be found with this complexity.
Text Retrieval: Theory and Practice
 In 12th IFIP World Computer Congress, volume I
, 1992
"... We present the state of the art of the main component of text retrieval systems: the searching engine. We outline the main lines of research and issues involved. We survey recently published results for text searching and we explore the gap between theoretical vs. practical algorithms. The main obse ..."
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Cited by 46 (14 self)
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We present the state of the art of the main component of text retrieval systems: the searching engine. We outline the main lines of research and issues involved. We survey recently published results for text searching and we explore the gap between theoretical vs. practical algorithms. The main observation is that simpler ideas are better in practice. 1597 Shaks. Lover's Compl. 2 From off a hill whose concaue wombe reworded A plaintfull story from a sistring vale. OED2, reword, sistering 1 1 Introduction Full text retrieval systems are becoming a popular way of providing support for online text. Their main advantage is that they avoid the complicated and expensive process of semantic indexing. From the enduser point of view, full text searching of online documents is appealing because a valid query is just any word or sentence of the document. However, when the desired answer cannot be obtained with a simple query, the user must perform his/her own semantic processing to guess w...
FASTER SUFFIX SORTING
, 1999
"... We propose a fast and memory efficient algorithm for lexicographically sorting the suffixes of a string, a problem that has important applications in data compression as well as string matching. Our ..."
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Cited by 46 (2 self)
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We propose a fast and memory efficient algorithm for lexicographically sorting the suffixes of a string, a problem that has important applications in data compression as well as string matching. Our
An Optimal Algorithm for Generating Minimal Perfect Hash Functions
 Information Processing Letters
, 1992
"... A new algorithm for generating order preserving minimal perfect hash functions is presented. The algorithm is probabilistic, involving generation of random graphs. It uses expected linear time and requires a linear number words to represent the hash function, and thus is optimal up to constant facto ..."
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Cited by 42 (0 self)
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A new algorithm for generating order preserving minimal perfect hash functions is presented. The algorithm is probabilistic, involving generation of random graphs. It uses expected linear time and requires a linear number words to represent the hash function, and thus is optimal up to constant factors. It runs very fast in practice. Keywords: Data structures, probabilistic algorithms, analysis of algorithms, hashing, random graphs
Large Text Searching Allowing Errors
, 1997
"... . We present a full inverted index for exact and approximate string matching in large texts. The index is composed of a table containing the vocabulary of words of the text and a list of positions in the text corresponding to each word. The size of the table of words is usually much less than 1% of ..."
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Cited by 37 (17 self)
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. We present a full inverted index for exact and approximate string matching in large texts. The index is composed of a table containing the vocabulary of words of the text and a list of positions in the text corresponding to each word. The size of the table of words is usually much less than 1% of the text size and hence can be kept in main memory, where most query processing takes place. The text, on the other hand, is not accessed at all. The algorithm permits a large number of variations of the exact and approximate string search problem, such as phrases, string matching with sets of characters (range and arbitrary set of characters, complements, wild cards), approximate search with nonuniform costs and arbitrary regular expressions. The whole index can be built in linear time, in a single sequential pass over the text, takes near 1=3 the space of the text, and retrieval times are near O( p n) for typical cases. Experimental results show that the algorithm works well in practice...
Improved Probabilistic Verification by Hash Compaction
 In Advanced Research Working Conference on Correct Hardware Design and Verification Methods
, 1995
"... . We present and analyze a probabilistic method for verification by explicit state enumeration, which improves on the "hashcompact" method of Wolper and Leroy. The hashcompact method maintains a hash table in which compressed values for states instead of full state descriptors are stored. This metho ..."
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Cited by 35 (7 self)
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. We present and analyze a probabilistic method for verification by explicit state enumeration, which improves on the "hashcompact" method of Wolper and Leroy. The hashcompact method maintains a hash table in which compressed values for states instead of full state descriptors are stored. This method saves space but allows a nonzero probability of omitting states during verification, which may cause verification to miss design errors (i.e. verification may produce "false positives"). Our method improves on Wolper and Leroy's by calculating the hash and compressed values independently, and by using a specific hashing scheme that requires a low number of probes in the hash table. The result is a large reduction in the probability of omitting a state. Hence, we can achieve a given upper bound on the probability of omitting a state using fewer bits per compressed state. For example, we can reduce the number of bytes stored for each state from the eight recommended by Wolper and Leroy to o...
Efficient Implementation of Suffix Trees
, 1995
"... this article we discuss how the suffix tree can be used for string searching ..."
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Cited by 34 (3 self)
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this article we discuss how the suffix tree can be used for string searching
Why simple hash functions work: Exploiting the entropy in a data stream
 In Proceedings of the 19th Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms
, 2008
"... Hashing is fundamental to many algorithms and data structures widely used in practice. For theoretical analysis of hashing, there have been two main approaches. First, one can assume that the hash function is truly random, mapping each data item independently and uniformly to the range. This idealiz ..."
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Cited by 33 (6 self)
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Hashing is fundamental to many algorithms and data structures widely used in practice. For theoretical analysis of hashing, there have been two main approaches. First, one can assume that the hash function is truly random, mapping each data item independently and uniformly to the range. This idealized model is unrealistic because a truly random hash function requires an exponential number of bits to describe. Alternatively, one can provide rigorous bounds on performance when explicit families of hash functions are used, such as 2universal or O(1)wise independent families. For such families, performance guarantees are often noticeably weaker than for ideal hashing. In practice, however, it is commonly observed that weak hash functions, including 2universal hash functions, perform as predicted by the idealized analysis for truly random hash functions. In this paper, we try to explain this phenomenon. We demonstrate that the strong performance of universal hash functions in practice can arise naturally from a combination of the randomness of the hash function and the data. Specifically, following the large body of literature on random sources and randomness extraction, we model the data as coming from a “block source, ” whereby
Improved Behaviour of Tries by Adaptive Branching
"... We introduce and analyze a method to reduce the search cost in tries. Traditional trie structures use branching factors at the nodes that are either fixed or a function of the number of elements. Instead, we let the distribution of the elements guide the choice of branching factors. This is accomp ..."
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Cited by 32 (8 self)
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We introduce and analyze a method to reduce the search cost in tries. Traditional trie structures use branching factors at the nodes that are either fixed or a function of the number of elements. Instead, we let the distribution of the elements guide the choice of branching factors. This is accomplished in a strikingly simple way: in a binary trie, the i highest complete levels are replaced by a single node of degree 2i; the compression is repeated in the subtries. This structure, the levelcompressed trie, inherits the good properties of binary tries with respect to neighbour and range searches, while the external path length is significantly decreased. It also has the advantage of being easy to implement. Our analysis shows that the expected depth of a stored element is \Theta (log \Lambda n) for uniformly distributed data.