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23
Notions of Computation and Monads
, 1991
"... The i.calculus is considered a useful mathematical tool in the study of programming languages, since programs can be identified with Iterms. However, if one goes further and uses bnconversion to prove equivalence of programs, then a gross simplification is introduced (programs are identified with ..."
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Cited by 730 (15 self)
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The i.calculus is considered a useful mathematical tool in the study of programming languages, since programs can be identified with Iterms. However, if one goes further and uses bnconversion to prove equivalence of programs, then a gross simplification is introduced (programs are identified with total functions from calues to values) that may jeopardise the applicability of theoretical results, In this paper we introduce calculi. based on a categorical semantics for computations, that provide a correct basis for proving equivalence of programs for a wide range of notions of computation.
Computational LambdaCalculus and Monads
, 1988
"... The calculus is considered an useful mathematical tool in the study of programming languages, since programs can be identified with terms. However, if one goes further and uses fijconversion to prove equivalence of programs, then a gross simplification 1 is introduced, that may jeopardise the ..."
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Cited by 439 (6 self)
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The calculus is considered an useful mathematical tool in the study of programming languages, since programs can be identified with terms. However, if one goes further and uses fijconversion to prove equivalence of programs, then a gross simplification 1 is introduced, that may jeopardise the applicability of theoretical results to real situations. In this paper we introduce a new calculus based on a categorical semantics for computations. This calculus provides a correct basis for proving equivalence of programs, independent from any specific computational model. 1 Introduction This paper is about logics for reasoning about programs, in particular for proving equivalence of programs. Following a consolidated tradition in theoretical computer science we identify programs with the closed terms, possibly containing extra constants, corresponding to some features of the programming language under consideration. There are three approaches to proving equivalence of programs: ffl T...
Applied Type System (extended abstract
 In postworkshop Proceedings of TYPES 2003
, 2004
"... Abstract. The framework Pure Type System (PTS) offers a simple and general approach to designing and formalizing type systems. However, in the presence of dependent types, there often exist some acute problems that make it difficult for PTS to accommodate many common realistic programming features s ..."
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Cited by 38 (13 self)
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Abstract. The framework Pure Type System (PTS) offers a simple and general approach to designing and formalizing type systems. However, in the presence of dependent types, there often exist some acute problems that make it difficult for PTS to accommodate many common realistic programming features such as general recursion, recursive types, effects (e.g., exceptions, references, input/output), etc. In this paper, we propose a new framework Applied Type System (ATS) to allow for designing and formalizing type systems that can readily support common realistic programming features. The key salient feature of ATS lies in a complete separation between statics, in which types are formed and reasoned about, and dynamics, in which programs are constructed and evaluated. With this separation, it is no longer possible for a program to occur in a type as is otherwise allowed in PTS. We present not only a formal development of ATS but also mention some examples in support of using ATS as a framework to form type systems for practical programming. 1
General recursion via coinductive types
 Logical Methods in Computer Science
"... Vol. 1 (2:1) 2005, pp. 1–28 ..."
Deliverables: A Categorical Approach to Program Development in Type Theory
, 1992
"... This thesis considers the problem of program correctness within a rich theory of dependent types, the Extended Calculus of Constructions (ECC). This system contains a powerful programming language of higherorder primitive recursion and higherorder intuitionistic logic. It is supported by Pollack's ..."
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Cited by 24 (1 self)
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This thesis considers the problem of program correctness within a rich theory of dependent types, the Extended Calculus of Constructions (ECC). This system contains a powerful programming language of higherorder primitive recursion and higherorder intuitionistic logic. It is supported by Pollack's versatile LEGO implementation, which I use extensively to develop the mathematical constructions studied here. I systematically investigate Burstall's notion of deliverable, that is, a program paired with a proof of correctness. This approach separates the concerns of programming and logic, since I want a simple program extraction mechanism. The \Sigmatypes of the calculus enable us to achieve this. There are many similarities with the subset interpretation of MartinLof type theory. I show that deliverables have a rich categorical structure, so that correctness proofs may be decomposed in a principled way. The categorical combinators which I define in the system package up much logical bo...
Nested General Recursion and Partiality in Type Theory
 Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics: 14th International Conference, TPHOLs 2001, volume 2152 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2000
"... We extend Bove's technique for formalising simple general recursive algorithms in constructive type theory to nested recursive algorithms. The method consists in defining an inductive specialpurpose accessibility predicate, that characterises the inputs on which the algorithm terminates. As a resul ..."
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Cited by 24 (10 self)
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We extend Bove's technique for formalising simple general recursive algorithms in constructive type theory to nested recursive algorithms. The method consists in defining an inductive specialpurpose accessibility predicate, that characterises the inputs on which the algorithm terminates. As a result, the typetheoretic version of the algorithm can be defined by structural recursion on the proof that the input values satisfy this predicate. This technique results in definitions in which the computational and logical parts are clearly separated; hence, the typetheoretic version of the algorithm is given by its purely functional content, similarly to the corresponding program in a functional programming language. In the case of nested recursion, the special predicate and the typetheoretic algorithm must be defined simultaneously, because they depend on each other. This kind of definitions is not allowed in ordinary type theory, but it is provided in type theories extended wit...
TypeTheoretic Methodology For Practical Programming Languages
 DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE, CORNELL UNIVERSITY
, 1998
"... The significance of type theory to the theory of programming languages has long been recognized. Advances in programming languages have often derived from understanding that stems from type theory. However, these applications of type theory to practical programming languages have been indirect; the ..."
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Cited by 22 (3 self)
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The significance of type theory to the theory of programming languages has long been recognized. Advances in programming languages have often derived from understanding that stems from type theory. However, these applications of type theory to practical programming languages have been indirect; the differences between practical languages and type theory have prevented direct connections between the two. This dissertation presents systematic techniques directly relating practical programming languages to type theory. These techniques allow programming languages to be interpreted in the rich mathematical domain of type theory. Such interpretations lead to semantics that are at once denotational and operational, combining the advantages of each, and they also lay the foundation for formal verification of computer programs in type theory. Previous type theories either have not provided adequate expressiveness to interpret practical languages, or have provided such expressiveness at the expense of essential features of the type theory. In particular, no previous type theory has supported a notion of partial functions (needed to interpret recursion in practical languages), and a notion of total functions and objects (needed to reason about data values), and an intrinsic notion of equality (needed for most interesting results). This dissertation presents the first type theory incorporating all three, and discusses issues arising in the design of that type theory. This type theory is used as the target of a typetheoretic semantics for a expressive programming calculus. This calculus may serve as an internal language for a variety of functional programming languages. The semantics is stated as a syntaxdirected embedding of the programming calculus into type theory. A critical point arising in both the type theory and the typetheoretic semantics is the issue of admissibility. Admissibility governs what types it is legal to form recursive functions over. To build a useful type theory for partial functions it is necessary to have a wide class of admissible types. In particular, it is necessary for all the types arising in the typetheoretic semantics to be admissible. In this dissertation I present a class of admissible types that is considerably wider than any previously known class.
Computational Foundations of Basic Recursive Function Theory
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1988
"... The theory of computability, or basic recursive function theory as it is often called, is usually motivated and developed using Church's Thesis. Here we show that there is an alternative computability theory in which some of the basic results on unsolvability become more absolute, results on complet ..."
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Cited by 20 (7 self)
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The theory of computability, or basic recursive function theory as it is often called, is usually motivated and developed using Church's Thesis. Here we show that there is an alternative computability theory in which some of the basic results on unsolvability become more absolute, results on completeness become simpler, and many of the central concepts become more abstract. In this approach computations are viewed as mathematical objects, and the major theorems in recursion theory may be classified according to which axioms about computation are needed to prove them. The theory is a typed theory of functions over the natural numbers, and there are unsolvable problems in this setting independent of the existence of indexings. The unsolvability results are interpreted to show that the partial function concept, so important in computer science, serves to distinguish between classical and constructive type theories (in a different way than does the decidability concept as expressed in the ...
Ats: A language that combines programming with theorem proving
 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2005
"... Abstract. ATS is a language with a highly expressive type system that supports a restricted form of dependent types in which programs are not allowed to appear in type expressions. The language is separated into two components: a proof language in which (inductive) proofs can be encoded as (total re ..."
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Cited by 13 (0 self)
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Abstract. ATS is a language with a highly expressive type system that supports a restricted form of dependent types in which programs are not allowed to appear in type expressions. The language is separated into two components: a proof language in which (inductive) proofs can be encoded as (total recursive) functions that are erased before execution, and a programming language for constructing programs to be evaluated. This separation enables a paradigm that combines programming with theorem proving. In this paper, we illustrate by example how this programming paradigm is supported in ATS.
Reasoning About Functional Programs in Nuprl
 In Functional Programming, Concurrency, Simulation and Automated Reasoning
, 1993
"... . There are two ways of reasoning about functional programs in the constructive type theory of the Nuprl proof development system. Nuprl can be used in a conventional programverification mode, in which functional programs are written in a familiar style and then proven to be correct. It can als ..."
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Cited by 12 (0 self)
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. There are two ways of reasoning about functional programs in the constructive type theory of the Nuprl proof development system. Nuprl can be used in a conventional programverification mode, in which functional programs are written in a familiar style and then proven to be correct. It can also be used in an extraction mode, where programs are not written explicitly, but instead are extracted from mathematical proofs. Nuprl is the only constructive type theory to support both of these approaches. These approaches are illustrated by applying Nuprl to Boyer and Moore's "majority" algorithm. 1 Introduction A type system for a functional programming language can be syntactic or semantic. In a syntactically typed language, such as SML 1 [25], typing is a property of the syntax of expressions. Only certain combinations of language constructs are designated "welltyped", and only welltyped expressions are given a meaning. Each welltyped expression has a type which can be derive...