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407
NonUniform Random Variate Generation
, 1986
"... Abstract. This is a survey of the main methods in nonuniform random variate generation, and highlights recent research on the subject. Classical paradigms such as inversion, rejection, guide tables, and transformations are reviewed. We provide information on the expected time complexity of various ..."
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Cited by 716 (21 self)
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Abstract. This is a survey of the main methods in nonuniform random variate generation, and highlights recent research on the subject. Classical paradigms such as inversion, rejection, guide tables, and transformations are reviewed. We provide information on the expected time complexity of various algorithms, before addressing modern topics such as indirectly specified distributions, random processes, and Markov chain methods.
Data mules: Modeling a threetier architecture for sparse sensor networks
 IN IEEE SNPA WORKSHOP
, 2003
"... Abstract — This paper presents and analyzes an architecture that exploits the serendipitous movement of mobile agents in an environment to collect sensor data in sparse sensor networks. The mobile entities, called MULEs, pick up data from sensors when in close range, buffer it, and drop off the data ..."
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Cited by 375 (6 self)
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Abstract — This paper presents and analyzes an architecture that exploits the serendipitous movement of mobile agents in an environment to collect sensor data in sparse sensor networks. The mobile entities, called MULEs, pick up data from sensors when in close range, buffer it, and drop off the data to wired access points when in proximity. This leads to substantial power savings at the sensors as they only have to transmit over a short range. Detailed performance analysis is presented based on a simple model of the system incorporating key system variables such as number of MULEs, sensors and access points. The performance metrics observed are the data success rate (the fraction of generated data that reaches the access points) and the required buffer capacities on the sensors and the MULEs. The modeling along with simulation results can be used for further analysis and provide certain guidelines for deployment of such systems. I.
GossipBased Computation of Aggregate Information
, 2003
"... between computers, and a resulting paradigm shift from centralized to highly distributed systems. With massive scale also comes massive instability, as node and link failures become the norm rather than the exception. For such highly volatile systems, decentralized gossipbased protocols are emergin ..."
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Cited by 312 (2 self)
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between computers, and a resulting paradigm shift from centralized to highly distributed systems. With massive scale also comes massive instability, as node and link failures become the norm rather than the exception. For such highly volatile systems, decentralized gossipbased protocols are emerging as an approach to maintaining simplicity and scalability while achieving faulttolerant information dissemination.
Spray and Wait: An Efficient Routing Scheme for Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks
 SIGCOMM'05
, 2005
"... Intermittently connected mobile networks are sparse wireless networks where most of the time there does not exist a complete path from the source to the destination. These networks ..."
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Cited by 306 (9 self)
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Intermittently connected mobile networks are sparse wireless networks where most of the time there does not exist a complete path from the source to the destination. These networks
Random Walks in PeertoPeer Networks
, 2004
"... We quantify the effectiveness of random walks for searching and construction of unstructured peertopeer (P2P) networks. For searching, we argue that random walks achieve improvement over flooding in the case of clustered overlay topologies and in the case of reissuing the same request several tim ..."
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Cited by 188 (2 self)
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We quantify the effectiveness of random walks for searching and construction of unstructured peertopeer (P2P) networks. For searching, we argue that random walks achieve improvement over flooding in the case of clustered overlay topologies and in the case of reissuing the same request several times. For construction, we argue that an expander can be maintained dynamically with constant operations per addition. The key technical ingredient of our approach is a deep result of stochastic processes indicating that samples taken from consecutive steps of a random walk can achieve statistical properties similar to independent sampling (if the second eigenvalue of the transition matrix is bounded away from 1, which translates to good expansion of the network; such connectivity is desired, and believed to hold, in every reasonable network and network model). This property has been previously used in complexity theory for construction of pseudorandom number generators. We reveal another facet of this theory and translate savings in random bits to savings in processing overhead.
Efficient routing in intermittently connected mobile networks: The multiplecopy case
, 2008
"... Intermittently connected mobile networks are wireless networks where most of the time there does not exist a complete path from the source to the destination. There are many real networks that follow this model, for example, wildlife tracking sensor networks, military networks, vehicular ad hoc net ..."
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Cited by 169 (16 self)
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Intermittently connected mobile networks are wireless networks where most of the time there does not exist a complete path from the source to the destination. There are many real networks that follow this model, for example, wildlife tracking sensor networks, military networks, vehicular ad hoc networks, etc. In this context, conventional routing schemes fail, because they try to establish complete endtoend paths, before any data is sent. To deal with such networks researchers have suggested to use floodingbased routing schemes. While floodingbased schemes have a high probability of delivery, they waste a lot of energy and suffer from severe contention which can significantly degrade their performance. Furthermore, proposed efforts to reduce the overhead of floodingbased schemes have often been plagued by large delays. With this in mind, we introduce a new family of routing schemes that “spray ” a few message copies into the network, and then route each copy independently towards the destination. We show that, if carefully designed, spray routing not only performs significantly fewer transmissions per message, but also has lower average delivery delays than existing schemes; furthermore, it is highly scalable and retains good performance under a large range of scenarios. Finally, we use our theoretical framework proposed in our 2004 paper to analyze the performance of spray routing. We also use this theory to show how to choose the number of copies to be sprayed and how to optimally distribute these copies to relays.
THE ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF A GRAPH CAPTURES ITS COMMUTE AND COVER TIMES
"... View an nvertex, medge undirected graph as an electrical network with unit resistors as edges. We extend known relations between random walks and electrical networks by showing that resistance in this network is intimately connected with the lengths of random walks on the graph. For example, the c ..."
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Cited by 146 (5 self)
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View an nvertex, medge undirected graph as an electrical network with unit resistors as edges. We extend known relations between random walks and electrical networks by showing that resistance in this network is intimately connected with the lengths of random walks on the graph. For example, the commute time between two vertices s and t (the expected length of a random walk from s to t and back) is precisely characterized by the e ective resistance Rst between s and t: commute time = 2mRst. As a corollary, the cover time (the expected length of a random walk visiting all vertices) is characterized by the maximum resistance R in the graph to within a factor of log n: mR cover time O(mR log n). For many graphs, the bounds on cover time obtained in this manner are better than those obtained from previous techniques such as the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix. In particular, we improve known bounds on cover times for highdegree graphs and expanders, and give new proofs of known results for multidimensional meshes. Moreover, resistance seems to provide an intuitively appealing and tractable approach to these problems.
A Kernel View Of The Dimensionality Reduction Of Manifolds
, 2003
"... We interpret several wellknown algorithms for dimensionality reduction of manifolds as kernel methods. Isomap, graph Laplacian eigenmap, and locally linear embedding (LLE) all utilize local neighborhood information to construct a global embedding of the manifold. We show how all three algorithm ..."
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Cited by 116 (7 self)
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We interpret several wellknown algorithms for dimensionality reduction of manifolds as kernel methods. Isomap, graph Laplacian eigenmap, and locally linear embedding (LLE) all utilize local neighborhood information to construct a global embedding of the manifold. We show how all three algorithms can be described as kernel PCA on specially constructed Gram matrices, and illustrate the similarities and differences between the algorithms with representative examples.
Computing communities in large networks using random walks
 J. of Graph Alg. and App. bf
, 2004
"... Dense subgraphs of sparse graphs (communities), which appear in most realworld complex networks, play an important role in many contexts. Computing them however is generally expensive. We propose here a measure of similarities between vertices based on random walks which has several important advan ..."
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Cited by 113 (2 self)
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Dense subgraphs of sparse graphs (communities), which appear in most realworld complex networks, play an important role in many contexts. Computing them however is generally expensive. We propose here a measure of similarities between vertices based on random walks which has several important advantages: it captures well the community structure in a network, it can be computed efficiently, and it can be used in an agglomerative algorithm to compute efficiently the community structure of a network. We propose such an algorithm, called Walktrap, which runs in time O(mn 2) and space O(n 2) in the worst case, and in time O(n 2 log n) and space O(n 2) in most realworld cases (n and m are respectively the number of vertices and edges in the input graph). Extensive comparison tests show that our algorithm surpasses previously proposed ones concerning the quality of the obtained community structures and that it stands among the best ones concerning the running time.
Singlecopy Routing in Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks
 In IEEE SECON
, 2004
"... Abstract — Intermittently connected mobile networks are wireless networks where most of the time there does not exist a complete path from source to destination, or such a path is highly unstable and may break soon after it has been discovered. In this context, conventional routing schemes would fai ..."
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Cited by 98 (11 self)
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Abstract — Intermittently connected mobile networks are wireless networks where most of the time there does not exist a complete path from source to destination, or such a path is highly unstable and may break soon after it has been discovered. In this context, conventional routing schemes would fail. To deal with such networks we propose the use of an opportunistic hopbyhop routing model. According to the model, a series of independent, local forwarding decisions are made, based on current connectivity and predictions of future connectivity information diffused through nodes’ mobility. The important issue here is how to choose an appropriate next hop. To this end, we propose and analyze via theory and simulations a number of routing algorithms. The champion algorithm turns out to be one that combines the simplicity of a simple random policy, which is efficient in finding good leads towards the destination, with the sophistication of utilitybased policies that efficiently follow good leads. We also state and analyze the performance of an oraclebased optimal algorithm, and compare it to the online approaches. The metrics used in the comparison are the average message delivery delay and the number of transmissions per message delivered. I.