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On specifying graphical models for causation, and the identification problem
 Evaluation Review
, 2004
"... This paper (which is mainly expository) sets up graphical models for causation, having a bit less than the usual complement of hypothetical counterfactuals. Assuming the invariance of error distributions may be essential for causal inference, but the errors themselves need not be invariant. Graphs c ..."
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Cited by 16 (1 self)
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This paper (which is mainly expository) sets up graphical models for causation, having a bit less than the usual complement of hypothetical counterfactuals. Assuming the invariance of error distributions may be essential for causal inference, but the errors themselves need not be invariant. Graphs can be interpreted using conditional distributions, so that we can better address connections between the mathematical framework and causality in the world. The identification problem is posed in terms of conditionals. As will be seen, causal relationships cannot be inferred from a data set by running regressions unless there is substantial prior knowledge about the mechanisms that generated the data. There are few successful applications of graphical models, mainly because few causal pathways can be excluded on a priori grounds. The invariance conditions themselves remain to be assessed.
From association to causation via regression
 Indiana: University of Notre Dame
, 1997
"... For nearly a century, investigators in the social sciences have used regression models to deduce causeandeffect relationships from patterns of association. Path models and automated search procedures are more recent developments. In my view, this enterprise has not been successful. The models tend ..."
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Cited by 16 (6 self)
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For nearly a century, investigators in the social sciences have used regression models to deduce causeandeffect relationships from patterns of association. Path models and automated search procedures are more recent developments. In my view, this enterprise has not been successful. The models tend to neglect the difficulties in establishing causal relations, and the mathematical complexities tend to obscure rather than clarify the assumptions on which the analysis is based. Formal statistical inference is, by its nature, conditional. If maintained hypotheses A, B, C,... hold, then H can be tested against the data. However, if A, B, C,... remain in doubt, so must inferences about H. Careful scrutiny of maintained hypotheses should therefore be a critical part of empirical work a principle honored more often in the breach than the observance.
Causation, Statistics, and Sociology
 EUROPEAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW,VOL. 17 NO. 1, 1^20
, 2001
"... Three different understandings of causation, each importantly shaped by the work of statisticians, are examined from the point of view of their value to sociologists: causation as robust dependence, causation as consequential manipulation, and causation as generative process. The last is favoured as ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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Three different understandings of causation, each importantly shaped by the work of statisticians, are examined from the point of view of their value to sociologists: causation as robust dependence, causation as consequential manipulation, and causation as generative process. The last is favoured as the basis for causal analysis in sociology. It allows the respective roles of statistics and theory to be clarified and is appropriate to sociology as a largely nonexperimental social science in which the concept of action is central.
Agentbased modeling: A new approach for theorybuilding in social psychology
 Personality and Social Psychology Review
, 2007
"... On behalf of: ..."
Statistical Models for Causation
, 2005
"... We review the basis for inferring causation by statistical modeling. Parameters should be stable under interventions, and so should error distributions. There are also statistical conditions on the errors. Stability is difficult to establish a priori, and the statistical conditions are equally probl ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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We review the basis for inferring causation by statistical modeling. Parameters should be stable under interventions, and so should error distributions. There are also statistical conditions on the errors. Stability is difficult to establish a priori, and the statistical conditions are equally problematic. Therefore, causal relationships are seldom to be inferred from a data set by running statistical algorithms, unless there is substantial prior knowledge about the mechanisms that generated the data. We begin with linear models (regression analysis) and then turn to graphical models, which may in principle be nonlinear.
Applications and graphics for propensity score analysis*
, 2004
"... Applications and graphics for propensity score analysis Methods for propensity score analysis (PSA) originated with Rosenbaum and Rubin (1983), as vehicles to sharpen and clarify treatment group comparisons in observational studies. Although highly recommended by many statisticians, and applied ofte ..."
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Applications and graphics for propensity score analysis Methods for propensity score analysis (PSA) originated with Rosenbaum and Rubin (1983), as vehicles to sharpen and clarify treatment group comparisons in observational studies. Although highly recommended by many statisticians, and applied often in medical sciences, PSA has seen relatively few applications in the social and behavioral sciences. This paper aims to facilitate sound PSA applications in psychological and other social sciences, and to emphasize the role visualization can play in such contexts. Numerous references to the expanding PSA literature are also provided. 2 Applications and graphics for propensity score analysis
Toward a Unified Theory of Causality
"... In comparative research, analysts conceptualize causation in contrasting ways when they pursue explanation in particular cases (caseoriented research) versus large populations (populationoriented research). With caseoriented research, they understand causation in terms of necessary, sufficient, I ..."
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In comparative research, analysts conceptualize causation in contrasting ways when they pursue explanation in particular cases (caseoriented research) versus large populations (populationoriented research). With caseoriented research, they understand causation in terms of necessary, sufficient, INUS, and SUIN causes. With populationoriented research, by contrast, they understand causation as mean causal effects. This article explores whether it is possible to translate the kind of causal language that is used in caseoriented research into the kind of causal language that is used in populationoriented research (and vice versa). The article suggests that such translation is possible, because certain types of INUS causes manifest themselves as variables that exhibit partial effects when studied in populationoriented research. The article concludes that the conception of causation adopted in caseoriented research is appropriate for the population level, whereas the conception of causation used in populationoriented research is valuable for making predictions in the face of uncertainty.
Statistical Models for Causation: A Critical Review
"... Regression models are often used to infer causation from association. For instance, Yule [79] showed – or tried to show – that welfare was a cause of poverty. Path models and structural equation models are later ..."
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Regression models are often used to infer causation from association. For instance, Yule [79] showed – or tried to show – that welfare was a cause of poverty. Path models and structural equation models are later