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Optimization Flow Control, I: Basic Algorithm and Convergence
 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING
, 1999
"... We propose an optimization approach to flow control where the objective is to maximize the aggregate source utility over their transmission rates. We view network links and sources as processors of a distributed computation system to solve the dual problem using gradient projection algorithm. In thi ..."
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Cited by 513 (55 self)
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We propose an optimization approach to flow control where the objective is to maximize the aggregate source utility over their transmission rates. We view network links and sources as processors of a distributed computation system to solve the dual problem using gradient projection algorithm. In this system sources select transmission rates that maximize their own benefits, utility minus bandwidth cost, and network links adjust bandwidth prices to coordinate the sources' decisions. We allow feedback delays to be different, substantial and timevarying, and links and sources to update at different times and with different frequencies. We provide asynchronous distributed algorithms and prove their convergence in a static environment. We present measurements obtained from a preliminary prototype to illustrate the convergence of the algorithm in a slowly timevarying environment.
Fair endtoend windowbased congestion control
 IEEE/ACM TRANS. ON NETWORKING
, 2000
"... In this paper, we demonstrate the existence of fair endtoend windowbased congestion control protocols for packetswitched networks with first comefirst served routers. Our definition of fairness generalizes proportional fairness and includes arbitrarily close approximations of maxmin fairness. T ..."
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Cited by 461 (3 self)
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In this paper, we demonstrate the existence of fair endtoend windowbased congestion control protocols for packetswitched networks with first comefirst served routers. Our definition of fairness generalizes proportional fairness and includes arbitrarily close approximations of maxmin fairness. The protocols use only information that is available to end hosts and are designed to converge reasonably fast. Our study is based on a multiclass fluid model of the network. The convergence of the protocols is proved using a Lyapunov function. The technical challenge is in the practical implementation of the protocols.
Congestion control for high bandwidthdelay product networks
 SIGCOMM '02
, 2002
"... Theory and experiments show that as the perflow product of bandwidth and latency increases, TCP becomes inefficient and prone to instability, regardless of the queuing scheme. This failing becomes increasingly important as the Internet evolves to incorporate very highbandwidth optical links and mo ..."
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Cited by 353 (4 self)
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Theory and experiments show that as the perflow product of bandwidth and latency increases, TCP becomes inefficient and prone to instability, regardless of the queuing scheme. This failing becomes increasingly important as the Internet evolves to incorporate very highbandwidth optical links and more largedelay satellite links. To address this problem, we develop a novel approach to Internet congestion control that outperforms TCP in conventional environments, and remains efficient, fair, scalable, and stable as the bandwidthdelay product increases. This new eXplicit Control Protocol, XCP, generalizes the Explicit Congestion Notification proposal (ECN). In addition, XCP introduces the new concept of decoupling utilization control from fairness control. This allows a more flexible and analytically tractable protocol design and opens new avenues for service differentiation. Using a control theory framework, we model XCP and demonstrate it is stable and efficient regardless of the link capacity, the round trip delay, and the number of sources. Extensive packetlevel simulations show that XCP outperforms TCP in both conventional and high bandwidthdelay environments. Further, XCP achieves fair bandwidth allocation, high utilization, small standing queue size, and nearzero packet drops, with both steady and highly varying traffic. Additionally, the new protocol does not maintain any perflow state in routers and requires few CPU cycles per packet, which makes it implementable in highspeed routers.
Resource pricing and the evolution of congestion control
, 1999
"... We describe ways in which the transmission control protocol of the Internet may evolve to support heterogeneous applications. We show that by appropriately marking packets at overloaded resources and by charging a fixed small amount for each mark received, endnodes are provided with the necessary i ..."
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Cited by 306 (7 self)
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We describe ways in which the transmission control protocol of the Internet may evolve to support heterogeneous applications. We show that by appropriately marking packets at overloaded resources and by charging a fixed small amount for each mark received, endnodes are provided with the necessary information and the correct incentive to use the network efficiently.
FAST TCP: Motivation, Architecture, Algorithms, Performance
, 2004
"... We describe FAST TCP, a new TCP congestion control algorithm for highspeed longlatency networks, from design to implementation. We highlight the approach taken by FAST TCP to address the four difficulties, at both packet and flow levels, which the current TCP implementation has at large windows. W ..."
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Cited by 273 (17 self)
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We describe FAST TCP, a new TCP congestion control algorithm for highspeed longlatency networks, from design to implementation. We highlight the approach taken by FAST TCP to address the four difficulties, at both packet and flow levels, which the current TCP implementation has at large windows. We describe the architecture and characterize the equilibrium and stability properties of FAST TCP. We present experimental results comparing our first Linux prototype with TCP Reno, HSTCP, and STCP in terms of throughput, fairness, stability, and responsiveness. FAST TCP aims to rapidly stabilize highspeed longlatency networks into steady, efficient and fair operating points, in dynamic sharing environments, and the preliminary results are promising.
Bandwidth Sharing: Objectives and Algorithms
 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
, 1999
"... This paper concerns the design of distributed algorithms for sharing network bandwidth resources among contending flows. The classical fairness notion is the socalled maxmin fairness; F. Kelly [8] has recently introduced the alternative proportional fairness criterion; we introduce a third crit ..."
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Cited by 269 (12 self)
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This paper concerns the design of distributed algorithms for sharing network bandwidth resources among contending flows. The classical fairness notion is the socalled maxmin fairness; F. Kelly [8] has recently introduced the alternative proportional fairness criterion; we introduce a third criterion, which is naturally interpreted in terms of the delays experienced by ongoing transfers. We prove that fixed size window control can achieve fair bandwidth sharing according to any of these criteria, provided scheduling at each link is performed in an appropriate manner. We next consider a distributed random scheme where each traffic source varies its sending rate randomly, based on binary feedback information from the network. We show how to select the source behaviour so as to achieve an equilibrium distribution concentrated around the considered fair rate allocations. This stochastic analysis is then used to assess the asymptotic behaviour of deterministic rate adaption proc...
A Duality Model of TCP and Queue Management Algorithms
 IEEE/ACM Trans. on Networking
, 2002
"... We propose a duality model of congestion control and apply it to understand the equilibrium properties of TCP and active queue management schemes. Congestion control is the interaction of source rates with certain congestion measures at network links. The basic idea is to regard source rates as p ..."
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Cited by 238 (34 self)
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We propose a duality model of congestion control and apply it to understand the equilibrium properties of TCP and active queue management schemes. Congestion control is the interaction of source rates with certain congestion measures at network links. The basic idea is to regard source rates as primal variables and congestion measures as dual variables, and congestion control as a distributed primaldual algorithm carried out over the Internet to maximize aggregate utility subject to capacity constraints. The primal iteration is carried out by TCP algorithms such as Reno or Vegas, and the dual iteration is carried out by queue management such as DropTail, RED or REM. We present these algorithms and their generalizations, derive their utility functions, and study their interaction.
On Designing Improved Controllers for AQM Routers Supporting TCP Flows
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF IEEE INFOCOM
, 2000
"... In this paper we study a previously developed linearized model of TCP and AQM. We use classical control system techniques to develop controllers well suited for the application. The controllers are shown to have better theoretical properties than the well known RED controller. We present guidelines ..."
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Cited by 219 (15 self)
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In this paper we study a previously developed linearized model of TCP and AQM. We use classical control system techniques to develop controllers well suited for the application. The controllers are shown to have better theoretical properties than the well known RED controller. We present guidelines for designing stable controllers subject to network parameters like load level, propogation delay etc. We also present simple implementation techniques which require a minimal change to RED implementations. The performance of the controllers are verified and compared with RED using ns simulations. The second of our designs, the Proportional Integral (PI) controller is shown to outperform RED significantly.
REM: Active Queue Management
 IEEE NETWORK
, 2000
"... REM is an active queue management scheme that measures congestion not by a performance measure such as loss or delay, but by a quantity we call price. Price is computed by each link distributively using local information and is fed back to the sources through packet dropping or marking. This decoupl ..."
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Cited by 205 (18 self)
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REM is an active queue management scheme that measures congestion not by a performance measure such as loss or delay, but by a quantity we call price. Price is computed by each link distributively using local information and is fed back to the sources through packet dropping or marking. This decoupling of congestion and performance measures allows REM to achieve high utilization with negligible delays and buffer overflow regardless of the number of. sources. We prove that REM is asymptotically stable and compare its performance with RED using simulations.
Endtoend congestion control schemes: Utility functions, random losses and ECN marks
 In Proceedings of IEEE Infocom
, 2000
"... We present a framework for designing endtoend congestion control schemes in a network where each user may have a different utility function and may experience noncongestionrelated losses. We first show that there exists an additive increasemultiplicative decrease scheme using only endtoend me ..."
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Cited by 178 (1 self)
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We present a framework for designing endtoend congestion control schemes in a network where each user may have a different utility function and may experience noncongestionrelated losses. We first show that there exists an additive increasemultiplicative decrease scheme using only endtoend measurable losses such that a sociallyoptimal solution can be reached. We incorporate roundtrip delay in this model, and show that one can generalize observations regarding TCPtype congestion avoidance to more general window flow control schemes. We then consider explicit congestion notification (ECN) as an alternate mechanism (instead of losses) for signaling congestion and show that ECN marking levels can be designed to nearly eliminate losses in the network by choosing the marking level independently for each node in the network. While the ECN marking level at each node may depend on the number of flows through the node, the appropriate marking level can be estimated using only aggregate flow measurements, i.e., perflow measurements are not required. 1